The Fourth Geneva Convention of 1949

GENEVA CONVENTION
RELATIVE TO THE PROTECTION OF CIVILIAN
PERSONS IN TIME OF WAR OF 12 AUGUST 1949
一九四九年八月十二日關於戰時保護平民之日內瓦公約  
    大日本帝國 漢字版
Article 1. 
The High Contracting Parties undertake to respect and to ensure respect for the present Convention in all circumstances.
Respect for the Convention1

 尊重公約
第1條
各締約國承諾在一切情況下尊重本公約並確保本公約被尊重。
     
ART. 2.  
In addition to the provisions which shall be implemented in peacetime, the present Convention shall apply to all cases of declared war or of any other armed conflict which may arise between two or more of the High Contracting Parties, even if the state of war is not recognized by one of them.

The Convention shall also apply to all cases of partial or total occupation of the territory of a High Contracting Party, even if the said occupation meets with no armed resistance.

Although one of the Powers in conflict may not be a party to the present Convention, the Powers who are parties thereto shall remain bound by it in their mutual relations. They shall furthermore be bound by the Convention in relation to the said Power, if the latter accepts and applies the provisions thereof.
Application of the Convention

公約之適用
第2條
除了和平時應實施之各項規定之外,本公約還適用於兩個或更多締約國間所產生之一切宣戰的戰爭或任何其他武裝衝突時,即使其中一國不承認有戰爭狀態。

凡在一締約國的領土一部或全部被佔領之場合,即使此項占領未遇武裝抵抗,亦適用本公約。

雖然衝突中之某一國可能不是締約國,其他曾簽訂本公約之國家於其相互關係上,仍應受本公約之拘束。設若上述非締約國接受並援用本公約之規定時,則締約各國對該國之關係,亦應受本公約之拘束。
     
ART. 3. 
In the case of armed conflict not of an international character occurring in the territory of one of the High Contracting Parties, each Party to the conflict shall be bound to apply, as a minimum, the following provisions:
1) Persons taking no active part in the hostilities, including members of armed forces who have laid down their arms and those placed hors de combat by sickness, wounds, detention, or any other cause, shall in all circumstances be treated humanely, without any adverse distinction founded on race, colour, religion or faith, sex, birth or wealth, or any other similar criteria.
To this end, the following acts are and shall remain prohibited at any time and in any place whatsoever with respect to the above-mentioned persons:
a) violence to life and person, in particular murder of all kinds, mutilation, cruel treatment and torture;
b) taking of hostages;
c) outrages upon personal dignity, in particular humiliating and degrading treatment;
d) the passing of sentences and the carrying out of
executions without previous judgment pronounced by a regularly constituted court, affording all the judicial guarantees which are recognized as indispensable by civilized peoples.
2) The wounded and sick shall be collected and cared for.

An impartial humanitarian body, such as the International Committee of the Red Cross, may offer its services to the Parties to the conflict.

The Parties to the conflict should further endeavour to bring into force, by means of special agreements, all or part of the other provisions of the present Convention.
The application of the preceding provisions shall not affect the legal status of the Parties to the conflict.
Conflicts not of an international character

非國際武裝衝突 (內戰)
第3條
在一締約國之領土內發生非國際性武裝衝突之場合,衝突各方最低限度應遵守下列規定:
(1)不實際參與敵對行動之人員,包括放下武器之武裝部隊人員及因病、傷、拘禁,或其他原因而失去戰鬥力之人員,在一切情況下應予以人道待遇,不得基於種族、膚色、宗教或信仰、性別、出身或財力或其他類似標準而有所歧視。
因此,對於上述人員,不論何時何地,不得有下列行為:
a)對生命與人身施以暴力,特別是各種謀殺、殘傷肢體、虐待及酷刑;
b)作為人質;
c)侮辱個人尊嚴,特别如侮辱與降低身份的待遇;
d)未經具有文明人類所承認不可或缺之司法保證的正規建構之法庭之宣判,而徑行判罪及執行死刑。
(2)傷者、病者應予收養照顧。

公正的人道主義團體,如紅十字國際委員會,得向衝突各方提供服務。

衝突各方對於該項衝突應進而努力,以特別協定之方式,使本公約之其他規定得全部或部分發生效力。上述規定之適用不影響衝突各方之法律地位。
 
     
ART. 4. 
Persons protected by the Convention are those who at a given moment and in any manner whatsoever, find themselves, in case of a conflict or occupation, in the hands of a Party to the conflict or Occupying Power of which they are not nationals.

Nationals of a State which is not bound by the Convention are not protected by it. Nationals of a neutral State who find themselves in the territory of a belligerent State, and nationals of a co-belligerent State, shall not be regarded as protected persons while the State of which they are nationals has normal diplomatic representation in the State in whose hands they are.

The provisions of Part II are, however, wider in application, as defined in Article 13.

Persons protected by the Geneva Convention for the
Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of August 12, 1949, or by the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea of August 12, 1949, or by the Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War of August 12, 1949, shall not be considered as protected persons within the meaning of the present Convention.
Definition of protected persons

被保護人的定義
第4條
本公約之被保護人,即為其人於任一時刻及不論何種方式,發現他們自己處於衝突且在非其本國之衝突之一方之掌控下,或者,在佔領國的掌控下,而他們不是佔領國的國民。

不受本公約拘束之國家之國民即不受本公約之保護。凡於交戰國領土內之中立國國民及共同交戰國之國民,當其所屬國籍國尚有正常外交使節駐在控制彼等的國家時,不得認為被保護人。

惟本公約第二部份之各項規定,如第13條所定義,其適用範圍較廣。

凡受1949年8月12日改善戰地武裝部隊傷者病者境遇之日內瓦公約,或1949年8月12日改善海上武裝部隊傷者病者及遇船難者境遇之日內瓦公約,或1949年8月12日關於戰俘待遇之日內瓦公約保護之人,不得認為是本公約意義內之被保護人。
     
ART. 5. 
Where, in the territory of a Party to the conflict, the latter is satisfied that an individual protected person is definitely suspected of or engaged in activities hostile to the security of the State, such individual person shall not be entitled to claim such rights and privileges under the present Convention as would, if exercised in the favour of such individual person, be prejudicial to the security of such State.

Where in occupied territory an individual protected person is detained as a spy or saboteur,or as a person under definite suspicion of activity hostile to the security of the Occupying Power, such person shall, in those cases where absolute military security so requires, be regarded as having forfeited rights of communication under the present Convention.

In each case, such persons shall nevertheless be treated with humanity, and in case of trial, shall not be deprived of the rights of fair and regular trial prescribed by the present Convention. They shall also be granted the full rights and privileges of a protected person under the present Convention at the earliest date consistent with the security of the State or Occupying Power, as the case may be.
Derogations

降低保護
第5條 
當在衝突之一方的領土上,個別之被保護人確有危害該國安全之活動之嫌疑,或從事該項活動,而本公約之各項權利與特權若為該個人行使將有害該國安全時,該個人即不得要求本公約所賦予之權利與特權。

當在被佔領土上,個別之被保護人如係因間諜或破壞分子,或因確有危害佔領國安全之活動嫌疑而被拘禁者,在絕對的軍事安全有此必要的情況下,其人應即認為喪失在本公約下之通訊權。

惟在每種情形下,此等人仍應受人道待遇,且在受審判時,不應剝奪本公約規定之公平正常的審判之權利。又應斟酌個別情況儘早在合於該國或佔領國之安全時給予彼等以被保護人依本公約所享有之全部權利與特權。
     
ART. 6.
The present Convention shall apply from the outset of any conflict or occupation mentioned in Article 2.

In the territory of Parties to the conflict, the application of the present Convention shall cease on the general close of military operations.

In the case of occupied territory, the application of the present Convention shall cease one year after the general close of military operations; however, the Occupying Power shall be bound, for the duration of the occupation, to the extent that such Power exercises the functions of government in such territory, by the provisions of the following Articles of the present Convention: 1 to 12, 27, 29 to 34, 47, 49, 51, 52, 53, 59, 61 to 77, 143.

Protected persons whose release, repatriation or re-establishment may take place after such dates shall meanwhile continue to benefit by the present Convention.
Beginning and end of application

本公約適用之開始及結束
第6條 
本公約於第2條所述之任何衝突或佔領開始,應立即適用。

在衝突各方之領土,本公約之適用,於軍事行動全面結束時應即停止。

在被佔領土之場合,本公約之適用於軍事行動全面結束後一年應即停止;然而,佔領國於佔領期間在佔領地行使政府職權之範圍,應受本公約下列各條規定之約束:第1至12、27、29至34、47、49、51、52、53、59、61至77、143條。

被保護人之釋放、遣返、或安置,若在上述各期限之後實施,於此期間,被保護人仍應繼續享受本公約之利益。
     
ART. 7.
In addition to the agreements expressly provided for in
Articles 11, 14, 15, 17, 36, 108, 109, 132, 133 and 149, the High Contracting Parties may conclude other special agreements for all matters concerning which they may deem it suitable to make separate provision. No special agreement shall adversely affect the situation of protected persons, as defined by the present Convention, nor restrict the rights which it confers upon them.

Protected persons shall continue to have the benefit of such
agreements as long as the Convention is applicable to them, except where express provisions to the contrary are contained in the aforesaid or in subsequent agreements, or where more favourable measures have been taken with regard to them by one or other of the Parties to the conflict.
Special agreements

特別協議
第7條
於第11、14、15、17、36、108、109、132、133及149各條明文規定之協定之外,各締約國得訂立特別協定,為了所有因素的考量,他們可能認為做分離於本公約的規定是適合的。唯不允許特別協定對本公約所定義的被保護人之境遇有不利的影響,也不得限制本公約所賦予他們的權利。

被保護人在本公約對其適用期間應繼續享受該項特別協定之利益,除非在上述或後續訂立之特別協定中有相反的明文的規定,或者衝突之一方對他們採取更優惠之措施。
     
ART. 8. 
Protected persons may in no circumstances renounce in part or in entirety the rights secured to them by the present Convention, and by the special agreements referred to in the foregoing Article, if such there be.
Non-renunciation of rights

不可放棄的權利
第8條
被保護人在任何情況下,不得放棄本公約賦予他們的權利之一部或全部,並且如果有前條所述的特別協定,不得放棄該特別協定所賦予他們的權利之一部或全部。
     
ART.9.
The present Convention shall be applied with the cooperation and under the scrutiny of the Protecting Powers whose duty it is to safeguard the interests of the Parties to the conflict. For this purpose, the Protecting Powers may appoint, apart from their diplomatic or consular staff, delegates from amongst their own nationals or the nationals of other neutral Powers. The said delegates shall be subject to the approval of the Power with which they are to carry out their duties.

The Parties to the conflict shall facilitate to the greatest extent possible the task of the representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers.

The representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers shall not in any case exceed their mission under the present Convention. They shall, in particular, take account of the imperative necessities of security of the State wherein they carry out their duties.
Protecting Powers

保護國
第9條
本公約之適用應與保護國合作並受其監察。保護國的責任在保障衝突各方之利益。為此目的,保護國得在其外交或領事人員之外,自其本國國民或其他中立國國民中指派代表。上述代表應取得被保護國執行任務的國家之認可。

衝突各方對於保護國之代表的工作應盡最大可能予以便利。

保護國之代表在任何情況下不得逾越本公約所賦予之任務。他們尤須顧及執行任務之所在國,該國於安全之迫切需要。
     
ART. 10.
The provisions of the present Convention constitute no obstacle to the humanitarian activities which the International Committee of the Red Cross or any other impartial humanitarian organization may, subject to the consent of the Parties to the conflict concerned, undertake for the protection of civilian persons and for their relief.
Activities of the International Committee of the Red Cross

國際紅十字委員會之活動
第10條
本公約之任何規定不得構成妨礙紅十字國際委員會或其他公正的人道組織,在有關衝突各方之同意之條件下,從事保護與救濟平民之人道活動。
     
ART. 11.
The High Contracting Parties may at any time agree to entrust to an international organization which offers all guarantees of impartiality and efficacy the duties incumbent on the Protecting Powers by virtue of the present Convention.

When persons protected by the present Convention do not benefit or cease to benefit, no matter for what reason, by the activities of a Protecting Power or of an organization provided for in the first paragraph above, the Detaining Power shall request a neutral State, or such an organization, to undertake the functions performed under the present Convention by a Protecting Power designated by the Parties to a conflict.

If protection cannot be arranged accordingly, the Detaining Power shall request or shall accept, subject to the provisions of this Article, the offer of the services of a humanitarian organization, such as the International Committee of the Red Cross, to assume the humanitarian functions performed by Protecting Powers under the present Convention.

Any neutral Power or any organization invited by the Power concerned or offering itself for these purposes, shall be required to act with a sense of responsibility towards the Party to the conflict on which persons protected by the present Convention depend, and shall be required to furnish sufficient assurances that it is in a position to undertake the appropriate functions and to discharge them impartially.

No derogation from the preceding provisions shall be made by special agreements between Powers one of which is restricted, even temporarily, in its freedom to negotiate with the other Power or its allies by reason of military events, more particularly where the whole, or a substantial part, of the territory of the said Power is occupied.

Whenever in the present Convention mention is made of a Protecting Power, such mention applies to substitute organizations in the sense of the present Article.

The provisions of this Article shall extend and be adapted to cases of nationals of a neutral State who are in occupied territory or who find themselves in the territory of a belligerent State in which the State of which they are nationals has not normal diplomatic representation.
Substitutes for Protecting Powers

保護國的替代方案
第11條
各締約國得於任何時間同意將本公約賦予保護國負擔之任務,委託於具有公正與效能之一切保證之國際組織。

當本公約之被保護人,無論什麼原因,不能享受或停止享受保護國或本條上述第一段所規定之組織的活動之利益時,則拘留國應請一中立國或此種組織,由其擔任依照本公約規範應由衝突各方指派之保護國所執行之任務。

若保護不能適合地佈置,則拘留國應在本條之規定之約束下,請求或接受一人道組織提供服務,如紅十字國際委員會,以擔任依本公約由保護國執行之人道的任務。

任何中立國或任何組織經有關國家邀請或為了這些目的自願提供服務時,在行為上須對衝突之一方-其人民被本公約所保護者-具有責任感,並須充分保證其已準備好,能執行適合的功能,且能公正地施行這些功能。

各國間訂立特別協定,如其中一國因軍事事件之因素,特別是因其領土之大部或全部被佔領,以致該國與其他一國或其盟國溝通之自由受限制,即或是暫時的,本公約上列規定不得因該項特別協定而有所減損。

凡本公約中提及保護國,亦適用於本條所指之代替組織。

凡中立國國民處於被佔領土或交戰國之領土內而其本國並無正常外交代表駐在參與戰事之國家時,本條各項規定應對他們適用。
 
     
ART. 12.
In cases where they deem it advisable in the interest
of protected persons, particularly in cases of disagreement between the Parties to the conflict as to the application or interpretation of the provisions of the present Convention, the Protecting Powers shall lend their good offices with a view to settling the disagreement.

For this purpose, each of the Protecting Powers may, either at the invitation of one Party or on its own initiative, propose to the Parties to the conflict a meeting of their representatives, and in particular of the authorities responsible for protected persons, possibly on neutral territory suitably chosen. The Parties to the conflict shall be bound to give effect to the proposals made to them for this purpose. The Protecting Powers may, if necessary, propose for approval by the Parties to the conflict, a person belonging to a neutral Power or delegated by the International Committee of the Red Cross, who shall be invited to take part in such a meeting.
Conciliation procedure

調解程序
第12條 
保護國認為於被保護人之利益適宜時,尤其遇衝突各方對於本公約之適用與解釋意見有分歧時,應從事斡旋以期解決分歧。

為此目的,各保護國得應一方之請求,或主動向衝突各方建議,可能在適當選擇之中立領土召開代表會議,被保護人之負責當局代表尤須參加。衝突各方對於為此目的而提出之建議負有實行之義務。各保護國得於必要時,向衝突各方提議,應該邀請一位中立國人員或紅十字國際委員會委派之人員參加此項會議。
     
PART II
GENERAL PROTECTION OF POPULATIONS AGAINST CERTAIN CONSEQUENCES OF WAR
第二部 居民之一般保護針對戰爭必然之後果
ART. 13.
The provisions of Part II cover the whole of the populations of the countries in conflict, without any adverse distinction based, in particular, on race, nationality, religion or political opinion, and are intended to alleviate the sufferings caused by war.
Field of application of Part II

第二部之適用領域
第13條 
本公約第二部之規定,涵蓋衝突各國之全部人民,不得有任何歧視,特別是基於種族、國籍、宗教或政治意見之歧視,各規定之目的在於減輕戰爭所致之痛苦。
     
ART. 14.
In time of peace, the High Contracting Parties and, after the outbreak of hostilities, the Parties thereto, may establish in their own territory and, if the need arises, in occupied areas, hospital and safety zones and localities so organized as to protect from the effects of war, wounded, sick and aged persons, children under fifteen, expectant mothers and mothers of children under seven.

Upon the outbreak and during the course of hostilities, the Parties concerned may conclude agreements on mutual recognition of the zones and localities they have created. They may for this purpose implement the provisions of the Draft Agreement annexed to the present Convention, with such amendments as they may consider necessary.

The Protecting Powers and the International Committee of the Red Cross are invited to lend their good offices in order to facilitate the institution and recognition of these hospital and safety zones and localities.
Hospital and safety zones and localities

醫院及安全地帶
第14條 
各締約國在和平時,以及衝突各方在戰事開始後,得在其領土內,並於需要發生時在被佔領的地區內,設立醫院及安全地帶與處所,加以適當的組織,使能保護傷者、病者、老者、15歲以下兒童、孕婦、及7歲以下兒童之母親,俾免受戰爭影響。

在戰事開始時及其進行中,有關各方得締結協定互相承認所設立之地帶與處所。各該國得為此目的實施協定草案之規定並附加於本公約之後。各該國認為必需時得做此小部份的修改。

本公約締約國,請各保護國及紅十字國際委員會為醫院與安全地帶及處所之設立及承認事,從事斡旋。
     
ART. 15.
Any Party to the conflict may, either direct or through a neutral State or some humanitarian organization, propose to the adverse Party to establish, in the regions where fighting is taking place, neutralized zones intended to shelter from the effects of war the following persons, without distinction:
a) wounded and sick combatants or non-combatants;
b) civilian persons who take no part in hostilities, and who, while they reside in the zones, perform no work of a military character.

When the Parties concerned have agreed upon the geographical position, administration, food supply and supervision of the proposed neutralized zone, a written agreement shall be concluded and signed by the representatives of the Parties to the conflict. The agreement shall fix the beginning and the duration of the neutralization of the zone.
Neutralized zones

中立化的地帶
第15條 
任何衝突之一方,得直接或通過一中立國或人道組織,向其敵方建議在交火區域內設立中立化地帶,保護下列人等免受戰爭之影響,不加歧視:
a)傷、病戰鬥員或非戰鬥員;
b)不參加戰事及雖居住在該地帶內而非從事軍事性質工作之平民。

如有關各國對於擬議之中立化地帶之地理位置、管理、食物供給及監督均予同意,應由衝突各方之代表簽定一書面協定,該協定應規定該地帶之中立化之開始及期限。
     
ART. 16.
The wounded and sick, as well as the infirm, and expectant mothers, shall be the object of particular protection and respect.

As far as military considerations allow, each Party to the conflict shall facilitate the steps taken to search for the killed and wounded, to assist the shipwrecked and other persons exposed to grave danger, and to protect them against pillage and ill-treatment.
Wounded
and sick
I.
General
protection

傷者及病者
I.保護通則
第16條 
傷者、病者、弱者以及孕婦應為特別保護與尊重之對象。

在軍事的考慮許可時,衝突各方對於尋覓死者、傷者、協助遇船難者及其他面臨嚴重危險之人,及保護彼等免遭搶劫及虐待所採取之各項步驟應予以便利。
     
ART. 17.
The Parties to the conflict shall endeavour to conclude local agreements for the removal from besieged or encircled areas,of wounded, sick, infirm,and aged persons, children and maternity cases, and for the passage of ministers of all religions, medical personnel and medical equipment on their way to such areas.
II.
Evacuation

II.疏散
第17條 
衝突各方應盡力締結當地的協定,以便將被包圍地區內之傷者、病者、弱者、老者、幼童及產婦撤出,以及使送往該地區之一切宗教之牧師、醫務人員、醫療設備得以通過。
     
ART. 18.
Civilian hospitals organized to give care to the wounded and sick, the infirm and maternity cases, may in no circumstances be the object of attack, but shall at all times be respected and protected by the Parties to the conflict.

States which are Parties to a conflict shall provide all civilian hospitals with certificates showing that they are civilian hospitals and that the buildings which they occupy are not used for any purpose which would deprive these hospitals of protection in accordance with Article 19.

Civilian hospitals shall be marked by means of the emblem provided for in Article 38 of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of August 12, 1949, but only if so authorized by the State.

The Parties to the conflict shall, in so far as military considerations permit, take the necessary steps to make the distinctive emblems indicating civilian hospitals clearly visible to the enemy land, air and naval forces in order to obviate the possibility of any hostile action.

In view of the dangers to which hospitals may be exposed by being close to military objectives, it is recommended that such hospitals be situated as far as possible from such objectives.
III.
Protection
of hospitals

III.保護醫院
第18條 
凡為照顧傷者、病者、弱者及產婦而組織之民用醫院,在任何情況下,絕不是攻擊之目標,而是應隨時受衝突各方之尊重與保護。

衝突各方之國家,對所有民用醫院應發給證書,證明各該醫院系民用醫院且其所佔用之建築物並未作依第19條應剝奪其保護之任何用途。

各民用醫院均應標以1949年8月12日改善戰地武裝部隊傷者病者境遇之日內瓦公約第38條所規定之標誌,惟須經各該國認可。

在軍事的考慮許可之限度內,衝突各方應採取必要步驟,使標明民用醫院之特殊標誌能為敵方陸、空及海軍清晰望見,以避免任何敵對行動之可能。

鑑於醫院臨近軍事目標不免遭受危險,故建議上述醫院之位置應盡量遠離該項目標。
     
ART. 19.
The protection to which civilian hospitals are entitled shall not cease unless they are used to commit, outside their humanitarian duties, acts harmful to the enemy. Protection may, however, cease only after due warning has been given, naming, in all appropriate cases, a reasonable time limit, and after such warning has remained unheeded.

The fact that sick or wounded members of the armed forces are nursed in these hospitals, or the presence of small arms and ammunition taken from such combatants and not yet handed to the proper service, shall not be considered to be acts harmful to the enemy.
IV.
Discontinuance
of protection
of hospitals

不保護醫院之情形
第19條 
民用醫院應得之保護不得停止,除非此項醫院越出其人道任務之外,用以從事有害於敵方之行為。惟如經給予相當警告,並按個別情形規定合理時限,而警告仍被忽視時,始得停止保護。

如有武裝部隊傷病人員在前項醫院療養,或由該項戰鬥員卸下之小型武器及彈藥尚未繳交主管機關之事實,不得視為有害敵方之行動。
     
ART. 20.
Persons regularly and solely engaged in the operation and administration of civilian hospitals, including the personnel engaged in the search for, removal and transporting of and caring for wounded and sick civilians, the infirm and maternity cases, shall be respected and protected.

In occupied territory and in zones of military operations, the above personnel shall be recognizable by means of an identity card certifying their status, bearing the photograph of the holder and embossed with the stamp of the responsible authority, and also by means of a stamped, water-resistant armlet which they shall wear on the left arm while carrying out their duties. This armlet shall be issued by the State and shall bear the emblem provided for in Article 38 of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of August 12, 1949.

Other personnel who are engaged in the operation and administration of civilian hospitals shall be entitled to respect and protection and to wear the armlet, as provided in and under the conditions prescribed in this Article, while they are employed on such duties.The identity card shall state the duties on which they are employed.

The management of each hospital shall at all times hold at the disposal of the competent national or occupying authorities an up-to-date list of such personnel.
V.
Hospital staff

醫院人員
第20條 
經常專門從事民用醫院工作及管理之人,包括從事搜尋、移送、運輸與照顧傷病平民、弱者及產婦之人員,均應受尊重與保護。

上述人員在被佔領土及軍事行動地帶內執行任務時,應有證明其地位之身份證,上貼本人像片,並軋有負責當局之鋼印,並應有在左臂佩帶加蓋印章之防水臂章,以資識別。此項臂章應由國家頒發,並須有1949年8月12日改善戰地武裝部隊傷者病者境遇之日內瓦公約第38條所規定之標誌。

其他從事民用醫院工作及管理之人員,若擔任此類任務時,應受尊重與保護,並按照本條所規定之條件,佩帶臂章。彼等之身份證上應註明其擔任之任務。

各醫院之管理部門應隨時備有上述各項工作人員之最近名單,以供本國主管機關或占領國佔領當局之用。
     
ART. 21.
Convoys of vehicles or hospital trains on land or specially provided vessels on sea, conveying wounded and sick civilians, the infirm and maternity cases, shall be respected and protected in the same manner as the hospitals provided for in Article 18, and shall be marked,with the consent of the State, by the display of the distinctive emblem provided for in Article 38 of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of August 12, 1949.
VI.
Land and sea
transport

陸地及海洋運輸
第21條 
凡運送傷病平民、弱者、產婦之陸地運輸隊、醫院列車或海上之特備船隻,均應與第18條所規定之醫院受同樣之尊重與保護,此項車船,經其國家同意後,應標以1949年8月12日改善戰地武裝部隊傷者病者境遇之日內瓦公約第38條所規定之特殊標誌。
     
ART. 22.
Aircraft exclusively employed for the removal of wounded and sick civilians, the infirm and maternity cases, or for the transport of medical personnel and equipment, shall not be attacked, but shall be respected while flying at heights, times and on routes specifically agreed upon between all the Parties to the conflict concerned.

They may be marked with the distinctive emblem provided for in Article 38 of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of August 12, 1949.

Unless agreed otherwise, flights over enemy or enemy-occupied territory are prohibited.

Such aircraft shall obey every summons to land. In the event of a landing thus imposed, the aircraft with its occupants may continue its flight after examination, if any.
VII.
Air transport

空中運輸
第22條 
凡專為移送傷病平民、弱者、產婦或運輸醫務人員、醫療設備之飛機,在有關衝突各方所特別約定之高度、時間、航線飛行時,應不受攻擊而予以尊重。

此項飛機得標以1949年8月12日改善戰地武裝部隊傷者病者境遇之日內瓦公約第38條所規定之特殊標誌。

除非另有協定,飛越敵方領土或敵方佔領地均所禁止。

此項飛機應服從降落命令。如被令降落,而需要檢查時,則經過檢查後,該機載其乘員得繼續飛行。
     
ART. 23.
Each High Contracting Party shall allow the free passage of all consignments of medical and hospital stores and objects necessary for religious worship intended only for civilians of another High Contracting Party, even if the latter is its adversary. It shall likewise permit the free passage of all consignments of essential foodstuffs, clothing and tonics intended for children under fifteen, expectant mothers and maternity cases.

The obligation of a High Contracting Party to allow the free passage of the consignments indicated in the preceding paragraph is subject to the condition that this Party is satisfied that there are no serious reasons for fearing:
a) that the consignments may be diverted from their destination,
b) that the control may not be effective, or
c) that a definite advantage may accrue to the military efforts or economy of the enemy through the substitution of the abovementioned consignments for goods which would otherwise be provided or produced by the enemy or through the release of such material, services or facilities as would otherwise be required for the production of such goods.

The Power which allows the passage of the consignments indicated in the first paragraph of this Article may make such permission conditional on the distribution to the persons benefited thereby being made under the local supervision of the Protecting Powers.

Such consignments shall be forwarded as rapidly as possible, and the Power which permits their free passage shall have the right to prescribe the technical arrangements under which such passage is allowed.
Consignments
of medical
supplies, food
and clothing

醫療用品、食品及
服裝之托運
第23條
各締約國對於純為另一締約國平民使用之醫療與醫院供應品,或宗教禮拜所需物品之一切裝運物資,均應許其自由通過,即使該另一締約國為其敵國。對於供十五歲以下兒童、孕婦與產婦使用之主要食物、衣服及滋補劑之裝運,亦應同樣許其自由通過。

締約國允許上款所述裝運物資自由通過之義務,以該國深信並無嚴重理由足以引起下列之恐懼為條件:
a)該項裝運物資可能從目的地改運他處;
b)管制可能無效;
c)由於上述各項物資代替了當由敵方供給或生產之物品,或使生產此類物品所需之材料,工作或設備得以騰出,而可能使敵方軍事工作或經濟有明確的優勢。

凡允許本條第一款所述裝運物資通過之國家,得要求在該項物資分發於受惠人時,應以由保護國就地監督為允許之條件。

上述裝運物資應儘速轉送,而允許此等物資自由通過之國家應有權規定准許該項通過之技術方面的辦法。
     
ART. 24.
The Parties to the conflict shall take the necessary measures to ensure that children under fifteen,who are orphaned or are separated from their families as a result of the war, are not left to their own resources,and that their maintenance, the exercise of their religion and their education are facilitated in all circumstances. Their education shall, as far as possible, be entrusted to persons of a similar cultural tradition.

The Parties to the conflict shall facilitate the reception of such children in a neutral country for the duration of the conflict with the consent of the Protecting Power, if any, and under due safeguards for the observance of the principles stated in the first paragraph.

They shall, furthermore, endeavour to arrange for all children under twelve to be identified by the wearing of identity discs, or by some other means.
Measures
relating to
child welfare

兒童福利措施
第24條 
衝突各方應採取必要措施,俾十五歲以下兒童因受戰爭影響成為孤兒或與家庭分離者,不致無人照管,並使彼等之撫養、宗教與教育之進行,在一切情形下均獲便利。彼等之教育,應盡可能委託於具有相似的文化傳統之人。

衝突各方應便利衝突期間此種兒童之收容於中立國,此事應經保護國——如其有保護國——之同意,並有遵守第一款所述原則之適當保證。

衝突各方並應盡力設法使十二歲以下兒童均佩帶身份牌,或用其他方式,以資識別。
     
ART. 25.
All persons in the territory of a Party to the conflict, or in a territory occupied by it, shall be enabled to give news of a strictly personal nature to members of their families,wherever they may be, and to receive news from them. This correspondence shall be forwarded speedily and without undue delay.

If, as a result of circumstances, it becomes difficult or impossible to exchange family correspondence by the ordinary post, the Parties to the conflict concerned shall apply to a neutral intermediary, such as the Central Agency provided for in Article 140, and shall decide in consultation with it how to ensure the fulfilment of their obligations under the best possible conditions, in particular with the co-operation of the National Red Cross (Red Crescent,Red Lion and Sun) Societies.

If the Parties to the conflict deem it necessary to restrict family correspondence, such restrictions shall be confined to the compulsory use of standard forms containing twenty-five freely chosen words, and to the limitation of the number of these forms despatched to one each month.
Family news

家庭消息
第25條 
衝突各方之領土內,或被佔領土內之所有人們,應能將純屬個人性質的消息通知其在任何地方之家人,並接獲其家人之此類消息。此項通訊應迅速傳遞,不得有不當之遲延。

如由於環境影響,難於或不可能由普通郵政互遞家庭信件時,有關衝突各方應向中立媒介接洽,如第140條所規定之中央事務所,並與之商定如何在可能最好的情況下保證其義務之履行,尤應取得各國紅十字(紅新月、紅獅與日)會之合作。

如衝突各方認為有限製家庭通訊之必要,該項限制只應限於強制使用之標准格式,其可容自由選擇之25字,及將寄發此項格式之信件每月限為一份。
     
ART. 26.
Each Party to the conflict shall facilitate enquiries made by members of families dispersed owing to the war, with the object of renewing contact with one another and of meeting, if possible. It shall encourage, in particular, the work of organizations engaged on this task provided they are acceptable to it and conform to its security regulations.
Dispersed
families

離散的家庭
 第26條 
衝突各方對於因戰爭致與家庭離散之人所為之調查,以期在可能時與其家庭重新聯繫或團聚者,應給予便利。衝突各方尤應鼓勵從事此項任務之組織之工作,但須此項組織能為其所接受並遵照其安全規則。
     
PART III
STATUS AND TREATMENT OF PROTECTED PERSONS  第三部  被保護人之地位與待遇
SECTION I
PROVISIONS COMMON TO THE TERRITORIES
OF THE PARTIES TO THE CONFLICT
AND TO OCCUPIED TERRITORIES                                   第一編  對於衝突各方之領土及被佔領土之共同規定 
ART. 27.
 Protected persons are entitled, in all circumstances, to respect for their persons, their honour, their family rights, their religious convictions and practices, and their manners and customs. They shall at all times be humanely treated, and shall be protected especially against all acts of violence or threats thereof and against insults and public curiosity.

Women shall be especially protected against any attack on their honour, in particular against rape, enforced prostitution, or any form of indecent assault.

Without prejudice to the provisions relating to their state of health, age and sex, all protected persons shall be treated with the same consideration by the Party to the conflict in whose power they are, without any adverse distinction based, in particular, on race, religion or political opinion.

However, the Parties to the conflict may take such measures of control and security in regard to protected persons as may be necessary as a result of the war.
Treatment
I.
General
observations

待遇
I.
普遍的關注
第27條 
被保護人之人身、榮譽、家庭權利、宗教信仰與儀式、風俗與習慣,在一切情形下均應予以尊重。無論何時,被保護人均須受人道待遇,並應受保護,特別使其免受一切暴行,或暴行的威脅及侮辱與公眾好奇心的煩擾。

婦女應受特別保護以免其榮譽受辱,尤須防止強姦、強迫為娼或任何形式的非禮之侵犯。

衝突各方對在其權力之下被保護人,在不妨有關其健康狀況、年齡、性別之各項規定之條件下,應同樣待遇之,尤不得基於種族、宗教或政治意見而有所歧視。

但衝突各方對被保護人得採取由於戰爭而有必要之管制及安全之措施。
     
ART. 28.
The presence of a protected person may not be used to render certain points or areas immune from military operations.
II.
Danger zones

II.危險地帶
第28條 
被保護人之存在,不得利用為使某點或某地區免受軍事攻擊。
     
ART. 29.
The Party to the conflict in whose hands protected persons may be, is responsible for the treatment accorded to them by its agents, irrespective of any individual responsibility which may be incurred.
III.
Responsibilities

III.責任
第29條 
在衝突一方對於掌控下之被保護人所受該國人員之待遇,該國均應負責,不論此項人員所負之個人責任如何。
     
ART. 30.
Protected persons shall have every facility for making application to the Protecting Powers, the International Committee of the Red Cross, the National Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) Society of the country where they may be, as well as to any organization that might assist them.

These several organizations shall be granted all facilities for that purpose by the authorities, within the bounds set by military or security considerations.

Apart from the visits of the delegates of the Protecting Powers and of the International Committee of the Red Cross, provided for by Article 143, the Detaining or Occupying Powers shall facilitate as much as possible visits to protected persons by the representatives of other organizations whose object is to give spiritual aid or material relief to such persons.
Application
to Protecting
Powers and
relief
organizations

保護國及救援組織之運用
第30條 
被保護人應有向保護國、紅十字國際委員會、彼等所在國之紅十字(紅新月、紅獅與日)會,或能予以協助之任何組織提出申請之各種便利。

上述各組織應由當局在根據軍事或安全的考慮所定之範圍內,予以上述目的所需之各種便利。

於第143條所規定之保護國及紅十字國際委員會代表之訪問之外,各拘留國或占領國對於以給予被保護人精神協助或物質救濟為目的之其他組織的代表之訪問被保護人,應盡量予以便利。
     
ART. 31.
No physical or moral coercion shall be exercised against protected persons, in particular to obtain information from them or from third parties.
Prohibition
of coercion

禁止強制
第31條 
對被保護人不得施以身體或道德之強迫,尤其不得藉以從彼等或第三者取得情報。
     
ART. 32.
The High Contracting Parties specifically agree that each of them is prohibited from taking any measure of such a character as to cause the physical suffering or extermination of protected persons in their hands. This prohibition applies not only to murder, torture, corporal punishment,mutilation and medical or scientific experiments not necessitated by the medical treatment of a protected person, but also to any other measures of brutality whether applied by civilian or military agents.
Prohibition
of corporal
punishment,
torture, etc.

禁止體罰拷打
第32條 
各締約國特別同意禁止各該國採取任何足以使其掌控之被保護人遭受身體痛苦或消滅之措施。此項禁令不僅適用於謀殺、酷刑、體刑、殘傷肢體及非為治療被保護人所必需之醫學或科學實驗,並適用於民事或軍事人員施行之其他任何殘酷措施。
     
ART. 33.
No protected person may be punished for an offence he or she has not personally committed. Collective penalties and likewise all measures of intimidation or of terrorism are prohibited.

Pillage is prohibited.

Reprisals against protected persons and their property are prohibited.
Individual
responsibility,
collective
penalties,
pillage,
reprisals

個人責任、集體懲罰、掠奪、報復
第33條 
被保護人無論男女不得因非本人所犯之行為而受懲罰。集體懲罰及一切恫嚇或恐怖主義的手段,均所禁止。

禁止掠奪。

禁止對被保護人及其財產採取報復行為。
     
ART. 34.
 The taking of hostages is prohibited.
Hostages

人質
第34條  禁止作為人質。
     
SECTION II                           第二編 在衝突一方領土內之外國人
ALIENS IN THE TERRITORY
OF A PARTY TO THE CONFLICT
   
ART. 35.
All protected persons who may desire to leave the territory at the outset of, or during a conflict, shall be entitled to do so, unless their departure is contrary to the national interests of the State. The applications of such persons to leave shall be decided in accordance with regularly established procedures and the decision shall be taken as rapidly as possible. Those persons permitted to leave may provide themselves with the necessary funds for their journey and take with them a reasonable amount of their effects and articles of personal use.

If any such person is refused permission to leave the territory, he shall be entitled to have such refusal reconsidered as soon as possible by an appropriate court or administrative board designated by the Detaining Power for that purpose.

Upon request, representatives of the Protecting Power shall, unless reasons of security prevent it, or the persons concerned object, be furnished with the reasons for refusal of any request for permission to leave the territory and be given, as expeditiously as possible, the names of all persons who have been denied permission to leave.
Right to leave
the territory

離開領土的權利
第35條 
一切被保護人,在衝突開始時,或衝突進行中,希望離境者,除非其離去有違所在國之國家利益,均應有權離境。此等人之離境申請應按照正常規定之手續予以決定,此項決定並應儘速為之。凡獲准離境之人得自行準備必須之旅費並攜帶相當數量之個人物品。

如上述任何人之離境請求被拒絕時,彼應有權請求拘留國所指定之主管法庭或行政審議機關對此項拒絕從速重新考慮。

除非安全理由所不許或關係人反對,一經保護國代表之請求,應即告以不准離境之理由,並應儘速檢送不准離境之人的全體名單。
     
ART. 36.
Departures permitted under the foregoing Article shall be carried out in satisfactory conditions as regards safety, hygiene, sanitation and food. All costs in connection therewith, from the point of exit in the territory of the Detaining Power, shall be borne by the country of destination, or, in the case of accommodation in a neutral country, by the Power whose nationals are benefited. The practical details of such movements may, if necessary, be settled by special agreements between the Powers concerned.

The foregoing shall not prejudice such special agreements as may be concluded between Parties to the conflict concerning the exchange and repatriation of their nationals in enemy hands.
Method of
repatriation

遣返的方式
第36條 
依上條獲准之離境,應在關於安全、衛生、保健及食物方面之妥善條件下實行之。一切有關離境之費用,自拘留國領土內之出境地點起,應由出境人目的地之國家擔負;若出境人被收容於中立國,則該項費用應由受益人之本國負擔。此項移動之施行細則,必要時,得由有關國家以特別協定決定之。

前項規定不得影響衝突各方間所訂關於交換及遣返在敵方手中之人民之特別協定。
     
ART. 37.
Protected persons who are confined pending proceedings or serving a sentence involving loss of liberty, shall during their confinement be humanely treated.

As soon as they are released, they may ask to leave the territory in conformity with the foregoing Articles.
Persons in
confinement

關禁閉的人
第37條
凡被保護人在候審期間,或因受有剝奪自由之判決而被禁閉者,在其禁閉期間應受人道待遇。

一經釋放,彼等即得依照以上各條請求離境。
     
ART. 38.
With the exception of special measures authorized by the present Convention, in particular by Articles 27 and 41 thereof, the situation of protected persons shall continue to be regulated, in principle, by the provisions concerning aliens in time of peace. In any case, the following rights shall be granted to them:
1) They shall be enabled to receive the individual or collective relief that may be sent to them.
2) They shall, if their state of health so requires, receive medical attention and hospital treatment to the same extent as the nationals of the State concerned.
3) They shall be allowed to practise their religion and to receive spiritual assistance from ministers of their faith.
4) If they reside in an area particularly exposed to the dangers of war, they shall be authorized to move from that area to the same extent as the nationals of the State concerned.
5) Children under fifteen years, pregnant women and mothers of children under seven years shall benefit by any preferential treatment to the same extent as the nationals of the State concerned.
I.
General
observations

I.普遍的關注
第38條
除本公約,尤其第27及41兩條所准許之特別辦法外,各被保護人之地位,在原則上應繼續按照和平時期有關外國人之規章,予以規定。在任何情形下,應予以下列權利:
1)應能領受送來之個人或集體救濟物品;
2)如其健康情形有此需要,應獲得與有關國家之人民同等之醫藥照顧與住院待遇;
3)應獲准舉行其宗教儀式,並接受其本教牧師之精神協助;
4)如居住於特別冒戰爭危險之區域時,應與有關國家之人民同樣獲准遷出該區域;
5)15歲以下兒童、孕婦、及7歲以下兒童之母親,應與有關國家之人民受同等之優惠待遇。
     
ART. 39.
Protected persons who, as a result of the war, have lost their gainful employment, shall be granted the opportunity to find paid employment. That opportunity shall, subject to security considerations and to the provisions of Article 40, be equal to that enjoyed by the nationals of the Power in whose territory they are.

Where a Party to the conflict applies to a protected person methods of control which result in his being unable to support himself, and especially if such a person is prevented for reasons of security from finding paid employment on reasonable conditions, the said Party shall ensure his support and that of his dependents.

Protected persons may in any case receive allowances from their home country, the Protecting Power, or the relief societies referred to in Article 30.
II.
Means of
existence

II.生存權
第39條 
凡被保護人因戰事影響而失去其收入之工作者,應予以尋覓有報酬之工作之機會。該項機會應與其所在國家之國民所享受之機會相等,但須受安全考慮及第40條規定之限制。

衝突一方對被保護人施行管制辦法因而使其不能自行維持生活,尤以該人因安全原因不能尋覓在合理條件之下有報酬之工作時,該衝突國應保證維持其本人與受其贍養人之生活。

各被保護人在任何情況下均得接受其本國、保護國,或第30條所述之救濟團體之津貼。
     
ART. 40.
Protected persons may be compelled to work only to the same extent as nationals of the Party to the conflict in whose territory they are.

If protected persons are of enemy nationality, they may only be compelled to do work which is normally necessary to ensure the feeding, sheltering, clothing, transport and health of human beings and which is not directly related to the conduct of military operations.

In the cases mentioned in the two preceding paragraphs, protected persons compelled to work shall have the benefit of the same working conditions and of the same safeguards as national workers, in particular as regards wages, hours of labour, clothing and equipment, previous training and compensation for occupational accidents and diseases.

If the above provisions are infringed, protected persons shall be allowed to exercise their right of complaint in accordance with Article 30.
III.
Employment

III.僱用
第40條
被保護人僅得在與其所在之衝突國之人民同樣限度內被強迫工作。

如被保護人係屬敵國國籍,則只能強迫其擔任通常為保證人類食、住、衣、行及健康所必需之工作而與軍事行動無直接關係者。

在前兩款所述之情形下,被強迫工作之被保護人應與本國工人享受同樣工作條件及同樣保障之利益,尤其關於工資、工作時間、衣服與設備、事先訓練及工作上意外傷害與疾病之賠償。

上述各項規定如被違反,應允許被保護人按照第30條行使其申訴之權利。
     
ART. 41.
Should the Power in whose hands protected persons may be consider the measures of control mentioned in the present Convention to be inadequate, it may not have recourse to any other measure of control more severe than that of assigned residence or internment, in accordance with the provisions of Articles 42 and 43.

In applying the provisions of Article 39, second paragraph, to the cases of persons required to leave their usual places of residence by virtue of a decision placing them in assigned residence elsewhere, the Detaining Power shall be guided as closely as possible by the standards of welfare set forth in Part III, Section IV of this Convention.
IV.
Assigned
residence.
Internment

IV.
指定居所、
拘留
第41條
如被保護人所掌控之國家認為本公約所述之管制措施不足時,不得採行較第42及第43兩條所定之指定居所或拘留更為嚴厲之管制措施。

在適用第39條第2款之規定,於配置他處指定居所之決定而須離開其原居所之人之場合時,拘留國應盡可能密切遵循本公約第三部第四編所定之福利標準。
     
ART. 42.
The internment or placing in assigned residence of protected persons may be ordered only if the security of the Detaining Power makes it absolutely necessary.

If any person, acting through the representatives of the Protecting Power, voluntarily demands internment, and if his situation renders this step necessary, he shall be interned by the Power in whose hands he may be.
V.
Grounds for
internment
or assigned
residence.
Voluntary
internment

V.拘留或指定住所之理由,自願拘留。
第42條 
對被保護人之拘留或配置指定居所,僅於拘留國之安全有絕對需要時方可施行。

如有人通過保護國之代表,自動請求拘留,而其處境使其採取此步驟為必要者,則掌控該人之國家應予拘留。
     
ART. 43.
Any protected person who has been interned or placed in assigned residence shall be entitled to have such action reconsidered as soon as possible by an appropriate court or administrative board designated by the Detaining Power for that purpose. If the internment or placing in assigned residence is maintained, the court or administrative board shall periodically, and at least twice yearly, give consideration to his or her case,with a view to the favourable amendment of the initial decision, if circumstances permit.

Unless the protected persons concerned object, the Detaining Power shall, as rapidly as possible, give the Protecting Power the names of any protected persons who have been interned or subjected to assigned residence, or who have been released from internment or assigned residence. The decisions of the courts or boards mentioned in the first paragraph of the present Article shall also, subject to the same conditions, be notified as rapidly as possible to the Protecting Power.
VI.
Procedure

VI.程序
第43條 
任何被保護人被拘留或被配置指定居所者,有權請拘留國為該項目的所指定之主管法庭或行政審議機關對於該項舉措儘速重新考慮。如該項拘留或配置指定居所仍予維持時,該法庭或行政審議機關應定期,至少一年兩次,對於案情予以審查,以期於環境許可時對於最初決定作有利之修正。

除非有關之被保護人反對,拘留國應儘速將已被拘留或已被指定居所之被保護人,及從拘留或指定居所中已予釋放之被保護人之姓名通知保護國。本條第一款提及之法庭或行政審議機關之決定,亦應依同樣條件之限制儘速通知保護國。
     
ART. 44.
In applying the measures of control mentioned in the present Convention, the Detaining Power shall not treat as enemy aliens exclusively on the basis of their nationality de jure of an enemy State, refugees who do not, in fact, enjoy the protection of any government.
VII.
Refugees

VII.難民
第44條 
適用本公約內提及之管制措施時,拘留國不得將事實上不受任何政府保護之難民僅依其法理上為敵國國籍而以敵僑待遇之。
     
ART. 45.
Protected persons shall not be transferred to a Power which is not a party to the Convention.

This provision shall in no way constitute an obstacle to the repatriation of protected persons, or to their return to their country of residence after the cessation of hostilities.

Protected persons may be transferred by the Detaining Power only to a Power which is a party to the present Convention and after the Detaining Power has satisfied itself of the willingness and ability of such transferee Power to apply the present Convention. If protected persons are transferred under such circumstances, responsibility for the application of the present Convention rests on the Power accepting them, while they are in its custody. Nevertheless, if that Power falls to carry out the provisions of the present Convention in any important respect, the Power by which the protected persons were transferred shall, upon being so notified by the Protecting Power, take effective measures to correct the situation or shall request the return of the protected persons. Such request must be complied with.

In no circumstances shall a protected person be transferred to a country where he or she may have reason to fear persecution for his or her political opinions or religious beliefs.

The provisions of this Article do not constitute an obstacle to the extradition, in pursuance of extradition treaties concluded before the outbreak of hostilities, of protected persons accused of offences against ordinary criminal law.
VIII.
Transfer to
another
Power

VIII.轉移到另一個國家
第45條 
被保護人不得移送於非本公約締約國之國家。

本規定不得構成對於被保護人在戰事結束後被遣返或其回到原居住國之障礙。

拘留國只能將被保護人移送至本公約之締約國,並須於拘留國對於接受國之實施本公約之意願與能力認為滿意後行之。如被保護人在此種情況下被移送時,其在該接受國看管期間,實施本公約之責任即由該接受國擔任之。但若該國在任何重要方面未能實行本公約之規定,則原移送國一經保護國通知,即應採取有效措施以糾正此種情況或要求將被保護人送還,此項要求必須遵守。

男女被保護人在任何情況下不得移送於因其政治意見或宗教信仰有恐懼迫害之理由之國家。

本條各項規定亦不構成對於根據戰事開始前所訂之引渡條約,將被控違犯普通刑法之被保護人予以引渡之障礙。
     
ART. 46.
In so far as they have not been previously withdrawn, restrictive measures taken regarding protected persons shall be cancelled as soon as possible after the close of hostilities.

Restrictive measures affecting their property shall be cancelled, in accordance with the law of the Detaining Power, as soon as possible after the close of hostilities.
Cancellation
of restrictive
measures

取消限制措施
第46條 
凡對被保護人實行之限制措施,其尚未撤消者,在戰事結束後應儘速取消之。

影響被保護人財產之限制措施,應按照拘留國之法律,於戰事結束後儘速取消。
     
SECTION III
OCCUPIED TERRITORIES             第三編 被佔領的領土 
   
ART. 47.
Protected persons who are in occupied territory shall not be deprived, in any case or in any manner whatsoever, of the benefits of the present Convention by any change introduced, as the result of the occupation of a territory, into the institutions or government of the said territory, nor by any agreement concluded between the authorities of the occupied territories and the Occupying Power, nor by any annexation by the latter of the whole or part of the occupied territory.
Inviolability
of rights

不可侵犯的權利
第47條 
本公約所賦予在被佔領土內之被保護人之各項利益,均不得因佔領領土之結果所引起該地制度或政府之變更,或因被佔領地當局與占領國所訂立之協定,或因佔領國兼併佔領地之全部或一部,而在任何情況下或依任何方式加以剝奪。
     
ART. 48.
Protected persons who are not nationals of the Power whose territory is occupied,may avail themselves of the right to leave the territory subject to the provisions of Article 35, and decisions thereon shall be taken according to the procedure which the Occupying Power shall establish in accordance with the said Article.
Special
cases of
repatriation

遣返的特殊情形
第48條 
被保護人其不是國家領土被佔領之國民者,得依第38條規定之限制,使用其離境權利,關於離境事項之決定,應按照佔領國依該條所訂之手續為之。
     
ART. 49.
Individual or mass forcible transfers, as well as deportations of protected persons from occupied territory to the territory of the Occupying Power or to that of any other country, occupied or not, are prohibited, regardless of their motive.

Nevertheless, the Occupying Power may undertake total or partial evacuation of a given area if the security of the population or imperative military reasons so demand. Such evacuations may not involve the displacement of protected persons outside the bounds of the occupied territory except when for material reasons it is impossible to avoid such displacement.Persons thus evacuated shall be transferred back to their homes as soon as hostilities in the area in question have ceased.

The Occupying Power undertaking such transfers or evacuations shall ensure, to the greatest practicable extent, that proper accommodation is provided to receive the protected persons, that the removals are effected in satisfactory conditions of hygiene, health, safety and nutrition, and that members of the same family are not separated.

The Protecting Power shall be informed of any transfers and evacuations as soon as they have taken place.

The Occupying Power shall not detain protected persons in an area particularly exposed to the dangers of war unless the security of the population or imperative military reasons so demand.

The Occupying Power shall not deport or transfer parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies.
Deportations,
transfers,
evacuations

驅逐出境。轉移。疏散。
第49條 
凡自被佔領土將被保護人個別或集體強制移送及驅逐往佔領國之領土或任何其他被佔領或未被佔領之國家之領土,不論其動機如何,均所禁止。

但如因居民安全或迫切的軍事理由,有此必要,佔領國得在一定區域施行全部或部分之撤退。上述撤退不得致使被保護人在佔領地境外流離失所,但因物質原因不能避免上述流離失所則為例外。依此被撤退之人,一俟該區域內戰事停止,應立即移送回家。

凡實行此種移送或撤退之佔領國,應盡最大可行的限度,保證供給適當設備以收容被保護人,該項移動應在衛生、保健、安全及營養之滿足的條件下執行,並應保證同一家庭之人不相分離。一經實行移送或撤退,應立即以其事實通知保護國。

除非因居民安全或迫切的軍事理由有此必要,佔領國不得將被保護人拘禁於特別冒戰爭危險之區域。

佔領國不得將其本國平民之一部分驅逐或移送至其所佔領之領土。
     
ART. 50.
The Occupying Power shall,with the co-operation of the national and local authorities, facilitate the proper working of all institutions devoted to the care and education of children.

The Occupying Power shall take all necessary steps to facilitate the identification of children and the registration of their parentage. It may not, in any case, change their personal status, nor enlist them in formations or organizations subordinate to it.

Should the local institutions be inadequate for the purpose, the Occupying Power shall make arrangements for the maintenance and education, if possible by persons of their own nationality, language and religion, of children who are orphaned or separated from their parents as a result of the war and who cannot be adequately cared for by a near relative or friend.

A special section of the Bureau set up in accordance with Article 136 shall be responsible for taking all necessary steps to identify children whose identity is in doubt. Particulars of their parents or other near relatives should always be recorded if available.

The Occupying Power shall not hinder the application of any preferential measures in regard to food,medical care and protection against the effects of war,which may have been adopted prior to the occupation in favour of children under fifteen years, expectant mothers, and mothers of children under seven years.
Children

兒童
第50條 
佔領國應該與國家的及當地的民事當局合作,對於一切從事照顧及教育兒童團體之正當工作予以便利。

佔領國應採取一切必要步驟以便利兒童之辨認及其父母之登記。但該國絕不得改變彼等之個人地位,亦不得使其參加隸屬於該國之各種組織。

如當地團體不能適應該目的時,佔領國應籌定撫養教育因戰爭變成孤兒或與父母失散,且不能由其近親或朋友適當照顧之兒童之辦法,倘屬可能,應由該項兒童同一國籍、語言及宗教之人士擔任該項工作。

依第136條設立之情報局所屬之一特別部門,應負責採行一切必要步驟辨認身份不明之兒童。彼等父母或其他近親之詳細情形,如能獲悉時,應予記錄。

在被佔領前,為惠及15歲以下兒童、孕婦,及7歲以下兒童之母親所採關於食物、醫藥照顧及保護之任何優待措施以防戰爭影響者,佔領國不得妨礙其實施。
     
ART. 51.
The Occupying Power may not compel protected persons to serve in its armed or auxiliary forces.No pressure or propaganda which aims at securing voluntary enlistment is permitted.

The Occupying Power may not compel protected persons to work unless they are over eighteen years of age, and then only on work which is necessary either for the needs of the army of occupation, or for the public utility services, or for the feeding, sheltering, clothing, transportation or health of the population of the occupied country. Protected persons may not be compelled to undertake any work which would involve them in the obligation of taking part in military operations.The Occupying Power may not compel protected persons to employ forcible means to ensure the security of the installations where they are performing compulsory labour.

The work shall be carried out only in the occupied territory where the persons whose services have been requisitioned are. Every such person shall, so far as possible, be kept in his usual place of employment.Workers shall be paid a fair wage and the work shall be proportionate to their physical and intellectual capacities. The legislation in force in the occupied country concerning working conditions, and safeguards as regards, in particular, such matters as wages, hours of work, equipment, preliminary training and compensation for occupational accidents and diseases, shall beapplicable to the protected persons assigned to the work referred to in this Article.

In no case shall requisition of labour lead to a mobilization of workers in an organization of a military or semi-military character.
Enlistment.
Labour

入伍。勞工。
第51條 
佔領國不得強迫被保護人在其武裝或輔助部隊服務。以獲得志願應募為目的之壓迫及宣傳均所不許。

佔領國不得強迫被保護人工作,除非彼等已滿18歲,而屆此年齡,亦只能派任占領軍、公用事業或被佔領國居民之衣、食、住、行或保健所需要之工作。被保護人不得強迫其擔任任何使彼等有參加軍事行動之義務之工作。佔領國不得強迫被保護人使用強力方法以保證彼等從事強迫勞動所在地之設備之安全。

上述工作之執行應僅限於被徵用人所在之被佔領土以內。此種人,應盡可能置於其平常工作之地方。對工人應付以公平工資,其工作應與其體力與智力相當。凡被佔領國關於工作條件,尤其關於工資、工作時間、設備、事先訓練及工作上意外傷害與疾病之賠償等保障之現行立法,對於派任本條所述工作之被保護人,應予適用。

在任何情況下,徵工不得變為動員工人參加軍事或半軍事性之組織。
     
ART. 52.
 No contract, agreement or regulation shall impair the right of any worker,whether voluntary or not and wherever he may be, to apply to the representatives of the Protecting Power in order to request the said Power’s intervention.

All measures aiming at creating unemployment or at restricting the opportunities offered to workers in an occupied territory, in order to induce them to work for the Occupying Power, are prohibited.
Protection
of workers

工作者的保護
第52條 
任何契約、協定或規則均不得減損任何工人向保護國代表申請請求該國干涉之權利,不論該工人是否係屬志願,亦不論其所在地點。

在被佔領土內,一切以造成失業或限制工人工作機會藉以引誘工人為佔領國工作為目的之措施,均所禁止。
     
ART. 53.
 Any destruction by the Occupying Power of real or personal property belonging individually or collectively to private persons, or to the State, or to other public authorities, or to social or co-operative organizations, is prohibited, except where such destruction is rendered absolutely necessary by military operations.
Prohibited
destruction

禁止破壞
第53條 
佔領國對個別或集體屬於私人,或國家,或其他公共機關,或社會或合作組織所有之動產或不動產之任何破壞均所禁止,但為軍事行動所絕對必要者則為例外。
     
ART. 54.
The Occupying Power may not alter the status of public officials or judges in the occupied territories, or in any way apply sanctions to or take any measures of coercion or discrimination against them, should they abstain from fulfilling their functions for reasons of conscience.

This prohibition does not prejudice the application of the second paragraph of Article 51. It does not affect the right of the Occupying Power to remove public officials from their posts.
Judges
and public
officials

法官及公務員
第54條 
被佔領土之公務人員與法官如為良心原因拒絕執行其職務時,佔領國不得改變其地位,或以任何方式施行製裁,或採用任何強迫或歧視措施。

前項禁例不妨礙第51條第2款之適用。亦不影響佔領國撤換公務人員之權。
     
ART. 55.
To the fullest extent of the means available to it, the Occupying Power has the duty of ensuring the food and medical supplies of the population; it should, in particular, bring in the necessary foodstuffs, medical stores and other articles if the resources of the occupied territory are inadequate.

The Occupying Power may not requisition foodstuffs, articles or medical supplies available in the occupied territory, except for use by the occupation forces and administration personnel, and then only if the requirements of the civilian population have been taken into account. Subject to the provisions of other international Conventions, the Occupying Power shall make arrangements to ensure that fair value is paid for any requisitioned goods.

The Protecting Power shall, at any time, be at liberty to verify the state of the food and medical supplies in occupied territories, except where temporary restrictions are made necessary by imperative military requirements.
Food
and medical
supplies
for the
population

人們所需的食物及醫療用品
第55條 
佔領國在其所有方法之最大限度內,負有保證居民之食物與醫療供應品之義務;如佔領地資源不足時,尤應運入必需之食物、醫療物資及其他物品。

佔領國不得徵用被佔領土所有之食物、物品或醫療供應品,但為佔領軍或行政人員使用者除外,並須業已顧及平民之需要,始能征用。佔領國應在其他國際公約規定之限制下,設法保證對其所徵用之物品付予公平價格。

保護國得隨時自由檢查佔領地內食物及醫療供應品之情形,但因迫切的軍事需要而定之暫時限制,不在此限。
     
ART. 56.
 To the fullest extent of the means available to it, the Occupying Power has the duty of ensuring and maintaining, with the co-operation of national and local authorities, the medical and hospital establishments and services, public health and hygiene in the occupied territory,with particular reference to the adoption and application of the prophylactic and preventive measures necessary to combat the spread of contagious diseases and epidemics.Medical personnel of all categories shall be allowed to carry out their duties.

If new hospitals are set up in occupied territory and if the competent organs of the occupied State are not operating there, the occupying authorities shall, if necessary, grant them the recognition provided for in Article 18. In similar circumstances, the occupying authorities shall also grant recognition to hospital personnel and transport vehicles under the provisions of Articles 20 and 21.

In adopting measures of health and hygiene and in their implementation, the Occupying Power shall take into consideration the moral and ethical susceptibilities of the population of the occupied territory.
Hygiene and
public health

衛生保健及公眾健康
第56條 
佔領國在其所有方法之最大限度內,負有依國家與地方當局之合作,保證並維持佔領地內之醫療與醫院設置與服務,公共保健與衛生之義務,尤須採取並實行撲滅傳染病與流行病傳播所必要之預防及措施。各類醫務人員應許其執行任務。

如被佔領土內成立新醫院而被佔領國之主管機關不在該地執行任務,佔領國於必要時應對該項醫院予以第18條所規定之承認。在類似情況下,佔領國亦應對醫院人員與運輸車輛予以第20及21兩條所規定之承認。

佔領國於採用及實施保健與衛生之措施時,應注意佔領地居民的道德上及倫理上之感受性。
     
ART. 57.
 The Occupying Power may requisition civilian hospitals only temporarily and only in cases of urgent necessity for the care of military wounded and sick, and then on condition that suitable arrangements are made in due time for the care and treatment of the patients and for the needs of the civilian population for hospital accommodation.

The material and stores of civilian hospitals cannot be requisitioned so long as they are necessary for the needs of the civilian population.
Requisition
of hospitals

徵用醫院
第57條 
佔領國得徵用民用醫院,但只能暫時徵用,並限於為照顧傷病軍事人員之緊急需要場合,且須以在相當期間對病人之照顧與醫療及平民之住院需要,制定適當辦法為條件。

民用醫院之器材與用品在須供平民需要之期中不得徵用。
     
ART. 58.
 The Occupying Power shall permit ministers of religion to give spiritual assistance to the members of their religious communities.

The Occupying Power shall also accept consignments of books and articles required for religious needs and shall facilitate their distribution in occupied territory.
Spiritual
assistance

精神上的協助
第58條 
佔領國應允許牧師對其本教教徒予以精神上之協助。

佔領國亦應接受宗教所需的書籍與物品之裝運物資,並對該項物資在佔領地內之分發予以便利。
     
ART. 59.
 If the whole or part of the population of an occupied territory is inadequately supplied, the Occupying Power shall agree to relief schemes on behalf of the said population, and shall facilitate them by all the means at its disposal.

Such schemes, which may be undertaken either by States or by impartial humanitarian organizations such as the International Committee of the Red Cross, shall consist, in particular, of the provision of consignments of foodstuffs,medical supplies and clothing.

All Contracting Parties shall permit the free passage of these consignments and shall guarantee their protection.

A Power granting free passage to consignments on their way to territory occupied by an adverse Party to the conflict shall, however, have the right to search the consignments, to regulate their passage according to prescribed times and routes, and to be reasonably satisfied through the Protecting Power that these consignments are to be used for the relief of the needy population and are not to be used for the benefit of the Occupying Power.
Relief
I.
Collective
relief

救濟
I.集體救濟
第59條 
如被佔領土之全部或部分居民之給養不足時,佔領國應同意救濟該項居民之計劃,並對該項計劃使用力所能及之一切方法予以便利。

該項計劃,可以由國家或公正人道組織如紅十字國際委員會承擔之,在該計劃中尤應包括食物,醫療品及衣服的裝運物資之供給。

各締約國均應允許該項裝運物資之自由通過並保證予以保護。

但締約國之允許上項裝運物資自由通過以運往衝突之敵方所佔領之區域者,有權檢查該項裝運物資,規定其依指定時間與路線通過,並通過保護國,查明該項裝運物資係為救濟待救之居民之用而非為佔領國之利益之用。
     
ART. 60.
 Relief consignments shall in no way relieve the Occupying Power of any of its responsibilities under Articles 55, 56 and 59.The Occupying Power shall in no way whatsoever divert relief consignments from the purpose for which they are intended, except in cases of urgent necessity, in the interests of the population of the occupied territory and with the consent of the Protecting Power.
II.
Responsibilities
of the
Occupying
Power

II.佔領國的責任
第60條 
救濟之裝運物資在任何情況下,不得解除佔領國在第55、56與59各條下之任何責任。佔領國無論如何不得將救濟之裝運物資移作他用,但在緊急需要情形中為佔領地居民之利益並徵得保護國之同意者,則為例外。
     
ART. 61.
 The distribution of the relief consignments referred to in the foregoing Articles shall be carried out with the cooperation and under the supervision of the Protecting Power. This duty may also be delegated, by agreement between the Occupying Power and the Protecting Power, to a neutral Power, to the International Committee of the Red Cross or to any other impartial humanitarian body.

Such consignments shall be exempt in occupied territory from all charges, taxes or customs duties unless these are necessary in the interests of the economy of the territory. The Occupying Power shall facilitate the rapid distribution of these consignments.

All Contracting Parties shall endeavour to permit the transit and transport, free of charge, of such relief consignments on their way to occupied territories.
III.
Distribution

III.配送
第61條 
以上各條所述之救濟裝運物資的分配,應在保護國之合作與監督下進行之。該項任務亦得依佔領國與保護國間之協定,委託一中立國,紅十字國際委員會或任何其他公正之人道團體辦理之。

上項裝運物資在佔領地內應豁免一切捐、稅、或關稅,除非此項捐、稅為該地經濟利益所必需。佔領國應便利此等裝運物資之迅速分配。

各締約國應盡力允許此等救濟裝運物資免費通過以運往佔領地。
     
ART. 62.
 Subject to imperative reasons of security, protected persons in occupied territories shall be permitted to receive the individual relief consignments sent to them.
IV.
Individual
relief

IV.個人的救濟
第62條 
被佔領土之被保護人應許其領受送與彼等之個人救濟物資,但須受迫切的安全理由之限制。
     
ART. 63.
 Subject to temporary and exceptional measures imposed for urgent reasons of security by the Occupying Power:
a) recognized National Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) Societies shall be able to pursue their activities in accordance with Red Cross Principles, as defined by the International Red Cross Conferences. Other relief societies shall be permitted to continue their humanitarian activities under similar conditions;
b) the Occupying Power may not require any changes in the personnel or structure of these societies, which would prejudice the aforesaid activities.

The same principles shall apply to the activities and personnel of special organizations of a non-military character, which already exist or which may be established, for the purpose of ensuring the living conditions of the civilian population by the maintenance of the essential public utility services, by the distribution of relief and by the organization of rescues.
National
Red Cross
and other
relief
societies

國際紅十字及其他救援團體
第63條 
在佔領國因緊急的安全理由所採用之暫時及例外措施之限制下:
a)經認可之各國紅十字(紅新月、紅獅與日)會應能按照國際紅十字大會所定之紅十字原則進行活動。其他救濟團體亦應許其在類似條件下繼續其人道活動;
b)佔領國不得要求此等團體為任何足以妨礙上述活動之人事或組織上之變更。

已經存在或將行設立之非軍事性質之特別組織,而以維持必要的公用事業,分配救濟物品與組織救護藉以保證居民生活狀況為目的者,上述之原則亦應適用於此等組織之活動及人員。
     
ART. 64.
 The penal laws of the occupied territory shall remain in force,with the exception that they may be repealed or suspended by the Occupying Power in cases where they constitute a threat to its security or an obstacle to the application of the present Convention. Subject to the latter consideration and to the necessity for ensuring the effective administration of justice, the tribunals of the occupied territory shall continue to function in respect of all offences covered by the said laws.

The Occupying Power may, however, subject the population of the occupied territory to provisions which are essential to enable the Occupying Power to fulfil its obligations under the present Convention, to maintain the orderly government of the territory, and to ensure the security of the Occupying Power, of the members and property of the occupying forces or administration, and likewise of the establishments and lines of communication used by them.
Penal
legislation
I.
General
observations

刑事立法
I.普遍的關注
第64條 
被佔領土之刑事法規應繼續有效,但遇該項法規構成對占領國安全之威脅或對本公約實行之障礙時,佔領國得予以廢除或停止。在後者之考慮及保證有效的司法之需要之限制下,被佔領土之法庭對於上述法規涉及之一切罪行,應繼續執行職務。

但佔領國得使被佔領土居民服從該國為執行其在本公約下所負之義務,維持該地有秩序之統治,與保證佔領國、佔領軍、與行政機關之人員及財產,以及其所使用之設置與交通線之安全所必要之規定。
     
ART. 65.
 The penal provisions enacted by the Occupying Power shall not come into force before they have been published and brought to the knowledge of the inhabitants in their own language. The effect of these penal provisions shall not be retroactive.
II.
Publication

II.法律之發布
第65條
佔領國所訂之刑法規定,在公佈及用居民本國語言使居民周知以前,不得生效。該項刑事法規不得具有追溯力。
     
ART. 66.
 In case of a breach of the penal provisions promulgated by it by virtue of the second paragraph of Article 64, the Occupying Power may hand over the accused to its properly constituted, non-political military courts, on condition that the said courts sit in the occupied country. Courts of appeal shall preferably sit in the occupied country.
III.
Competent
courts

III.主管法院
第66條 
遇有違犯根據第64條第2款公佈之刑法規定之案件,佔領國得將被告交付正當組織之非政治的軍事法庭,但以該法庭在被佔領土開庭為條件。上訴法庭最好在被佔領土開庭。
     
ART. 67.
 The courts shall apply only those provisions of law which were applicable prior to the offence, and which are in accordance with general principles of law, in particular the principle that the penalty shall be proportionate to the offence. They shall take into consideration the fact that the accused is not a national of the Occupying Power.
IV.
Applicable
provisions

IV.適用條款
第67條 
前項法庭應僅適用在該罪行發生前已經實施並符合一般法律原則,尤其罰罪相當之原則之法律規定。此等法庭對於被告之非佔領國人民之事實,應加以考慮。
     
ART. 68.
 Protected persons who commit an offence which is solely intended to harm the Occupying Power, but which does not constitute an attempt on the life or limb of members of the occupying forces or administration, nor a grave collective danger, nor seriously damage the property of the occupying forces or administration or the installations used by them, shall be liable to internment or simple imprisonment, provided the duration of such internment or imprisonment is proportionate to the offence committed. Furthermore, internment or imprisonment shall, for such offences, be the only measure adopted for depriving protected persons of liberty. The courts provided for under Article 66 of the present Convention may at their discretion convert a sentence of imprisonment to one of internment for the same period.

The penal provisions promulgated by the Occupying Power in accordance with Articles 64 and 65 may impose the death penalty on a protected person only in cases where the person is guilty of espionage, of serious acts of sabotage against the military installations of the Occupying Power or of intentional offences which have caused the death of one or more persons, provided that such offences were punishable by death under the law of the occupied territory in force before the occupation began.

The death penalty may not be pronounced against a protected person unless the attention of the court has been particularly called to the fact that since the accused is not a national of the Occupying Power, he is not bound to it by any duty of allegiance.

In any case, the death penalty may not be pronounced against a protected person who was under eighteen years of age at the time of the offence.
V.
Penalties.
Death
penalty

V.處刑。死刑。
第68條  
被保護人犯有純以損害佔領國為目的之罪行,而此項罪行並非企圖殺害佔領軍或行政機關之人員之生命或肢體,亦不構成嚴重之集體危險,也未嚴重損害佔領軍及行政機關之財產或其所使用之設備者,應處以拘留或單純監禁,而拘留或監禁之期間應與所犯罪行相當。且因此等罪行而處之拘留或監禁,應為剝奪被保護人自由之僅有措施。本公約第66條所規定之法庭可自行斟酌將監禁之判決改為同樣期限之拘留。

僅在被保護人犯間謀罪,或嚴重破壞佔領國軍事設備之罪行或故意犯罪致一人或多人於死亡之案件中,佔領國依第64及65兩條所公佈之刑法規定,始得對被保護人處以死刑,但須此種罪行依佔領地在佔領開始前通行之法律亦受死刑之處罰。

除非法庭特別被提起注意被保護人因非拘留國之人民,不受對該國效忠義務之拘束之事實後,不得將被保護人判處死刑。

凡被保護人犯罪時年齡在18歲以下者,在任何情況下不得判處死刑。
     
ART. 69.
In all cases, the duration of the period during which a protected person accused of an offence is under arrest awaiting trial or punishment shall be deducted from any period of imprisonment awarded.
VI.
Deduction
from
sentence of
period spent
under arrest

VI.刑期扣除自逮捕候審之時間
第69條 
無論任何案件中,被保護人因被控犯罪而遭逮捕,等候審判或處罰之時間,應從判處之監禁時間內,予以扣除。
     
ART. 70.
 Protected persons shall not be arrested, prosecuted or convicted by the Occupying Power for acts committed or for opinions expressed before the occupation, or during a temporary interruption thereof, with the exception of breaches of the laws and customs of war.

Nationals of the Occupying Power who, before the outbreak of hostilities, have sought refuge in the territory of the occupied State, shall not be arrested, prosecuted, convicted or deported from the occupied territory, except for offences committed after the outbreak of hostilities, or for offences under common law committed before the outbreak of hostilities which, according to the law of the occupied State, would have justified extradition in time of peace.
VII.
Offences
committed
before
occupation

VII.
佔領前犯下的罪行
第70條 
佔領國不得因被保護人在佔領前或占領暫時中斷期間之行為或發表之意見,而將其逮捕,訴追或定罪,但破壞戰爭法律與慣例之行為除外。

凡佔領國人民在戰事開始前即逃亡於被佔領國領土者,不得加以逮捕、訴追、定罪或驅逐出佔領地,但其在戰事開始後所犯之罪行,或其在戰事開始前所犯普通法下之罪行,而依被佔領國法律在和平時期應予引渡者除外。
     
ART. 71.
 No sentence shall be pronounced by the competent courts of the Occupying Power except after a regular trial.

Accused persons who are prosecuted by the Occupying Power shall be promptly informed, in writing, in a language which they understand,of the particulars of the charges preferred against them, and shall be brought to trial as rapidly as possible. The Protecting Power shall be informed of all proceedings instituted by the Occupying Power against protected persons in respect of charges involving the death penalty or imprisonment for two years or more; it shall be enabled, at any time, to obtain information regarding the state of such proceedings. Furthermore, the Protecting Power shall be entitled, on request, to be furnished with all particulars of these and of any other proceedings instituted by the Occupying Power against protected persons.

The notification to the Protecting Power, as provided for in the second paragraph above, shall be sent immediately, and shall in any case reach the Protecting Power three weeks before the date of the first hearing. Unless, at the opening of the trial, evidence is submitted that the provisions of this Article are fully complied with, the trial shall not proceed. The notification shall include the following particulars:
a) description of the accused;
b) place of residence or detention;
c) specification of the charge or charges (with mention of thepenal provisions under which it is brought);
d) designation of the court which will hear the case;
e) place and date of the first hearing.
Penal
procedure
I.
General
observations

刑事程序
I.普遍的關注
第71條 
佔領國之主管法庭非經合法審判不得宣告判決。

佔領國對於其所訴追之被告,應迅速以被告所了解之文字,書面通知其被訴罪名之詳情,並應儘速交付審判。佔領國應將對被保護人所進行之涉及死刑或二年或二年以上監禁等罪名之訴訟,通知保護國;保護國應能隨時獲悉該項訴訟之情形。又保護國應有權,於提出請求時,獲得上項及佔領國對被保護人所提起其他訴訟之詳情。
本條第二款所規定對於保護國之通知,應立即出發,且必需在第一次審訊前三個星期到達被保護國。除非在審判開始時,提出證據,證明本條各項規定均已完全遵照,審訊不得進行。該項通知應包括下列各點:
a) 關於被告之說明;
b) 居所或拘留處所;
c) 某一種罪名或某幾種罪名之列舉(註明控訴所根據之刑法規定);
d) 承審該案之法庭名稱;
e) 第一次審訊之日期及地點。
     
ART. 72.
 Accused persons shall have the right to present evidence necessary to their defence and may, in particular, call witnesses. They shall have the right to be assisted by a qualified advocate or counsel of their own choice, who shall be able to visit them freely and shall enjoy the necessary facilities for preparing the defence.

Failing a choice by the accused, the Protecting Power may provide him with an advocate or counsel.When an accused person has to meet a serious charge and the Protecting Power is not functioning, the Occupying Power, subject to the consent of the accused, shall provide an advocate or counsel.

Accused persons shall, unless they freely waive such assistance, be aided by an interpreter, both during preliminary investigation and during the hearing in court. They shall have the right at any time to object to the interpreter and to ask for his replacement.
II.
Right of
defence

II.抗辯權
第72條 
被告有權提出為其辯護所需之證據,尤得請求傳喚證人。彼等有權由其自行選定之合格辯護人或律師協助,該辯護人或律師得自由訪問被告並有權享受準備辯護詞所需之便利。

被告如未自行選定,則保護國得供給辯護人或律師。當被告被控重罪而保護國未執行任務時,佔領國在被告同意之條件下,應供給一辯護人或律師。

在初步偵查及審訊期間被告應獲有譯員之協助,除非被告自由放棄此項協助。被告有權隨時反對譯員並要求撤換。
     
ART. 73.
 A convicted person shall have the right of appeal provided for by the laws applied by the court. He shall be fully informed of his right to appeal or petition and of the time limit within which he may do so.

The penal procedure provided in the present Section shall apply, as far as it is applicable, to appeals.Where the laws applied by the court make no provision for appeals, the convicted person shall have the right to petition against the finding and sentence to the competent authority of the Occupying Power.
III.
Right of
appeal

III.上訴權
第73條 
被判罪人應有法庭適用之法律所規定之上訴權。對被判罪人應詳細通知其上訴或訴願之權利及行使該項權利之期限。

本編所規定之刑事程序應在可能使用範圍以內,適用於上訴。如法庭適用之法律無上訴之規定時,被判罪人應有權向佔領國主管當局對事實的認定及判決提出訴願。
     
ART. 74.
 Representatives of the Protecting Power shall have the right to attend the trial of any protected person, unless the hearing has, as an exceptional measure, to be held in camera in the interests of the security of the Occupying Power, which shall then notify the Protecting Power. A notification in respect of the date and place of trial shall be sent to the Protecting Power.

Any judgment involving a sentence of death,or imprisonment for two years or more, shall be communicated, with the relevant grounds, as rapidly as possible to the Protecting Power. The notification shall contain a reference to the notification made under Article 71, and, in the case of sentences of imprisonment, the name of the place where the sentence is to be served. A record of judgments other than those referred to above shall be kept by the court and shall be open to inspection by representatives of the Protecting Power. Any period allowed for appeal in the case of sentences involving the death penalty, or imprisonment of two years or more, shall not run until notification of judgment has been received by the Protecting Power.
IV.
Assistance
by the
Protecting
Power

IV.保護國的協助
第74條 
保護國之代表應有權到庭旁聽任何被保護人之審判,除非為佔領國安全的利益而必須例外的禁止旁聽,在此種場合,佔領國應通知保護國。審判之日期地點應通知保護國。

涉及死刑或兩年或兩年以上監禁之任何判決,應連同其有關之根據儘速通知保護國。該通知應引述第71條所規定之通知;如為監禁判決時,並應載明服刑地方之名稱。上述各項判決以外之記錄,應由法庭保存,且應供保護國代表之檢查。凡涉及死刑或兩年或兩年以上監禁的判決之上訴期限,在保護國接到判決通知前,不得開始。
     
ART. 75.
 In no case shall persons condemned to death be deprived of the right of petition for pardon or reprieve.

No death sentence shall be carried out before the expiration of a period of at least six months from the date of receipt by the Protecting Power of the notification of the final judgment confirming such death sentence, or of an order denying pardon or reprieve.

The six months period of suspension of the death sentence herein prescribed may be reduced in individual cases in circumstances of grave emergency involving an organized threat to the security of the Occupying Power or its forces, provided always that the Protecting Power is notified of such reduction and is given reasonable time and opportunity to make representations to the competent occupying authorities in respect of such death sentences.
V.
Death
sentence
第75條 
被判死刑者請求赦免或緩刑之權利,絕不得予以剝奪。
從保護國接到確定死刑最後判決的通知或接到拒絕赦免及緩刑之命令的通知之日起,至少六個月期限屆滿以前,不得執行死刑。
遇有個別案件,其情形嚴重緊急,對於佔領國或其部隊安全發生有組織之威脅時,本條所規定之暫停執行死刑六個月之期限得予縮短,但必須將該項縮短情形通知保護國,並須予以相當之時間及機會,以便向主管佔領當局提出關於此項死刑判決之意見。
     
ART. 76.
Protected persons accused of offences shall be detained in the occupied country, and if convicted they shall serve their sentences therein. They shall, if possible, be separated from other detainees and shall enjoy conditions of food and hygiene which will be sufficient to keep them in good health, and which will be at least equal to those obtaining in prisons in the occupied country.

They shall receive the medical attention required by their state of health.

They shall also have the right to receive any spiritual assistance which they may require.

Women shall be confined in separate quarters and shall be under the direct supervision of women.

Proper regard shall be paid to the special treatment due to minors.

Protected persons who are detained shall have the right to be visited by delegates of the Protecting Power and of the International Committee of the Red Cross, in accordance with the provisions of Article 143.

Such persons shall have the right to receive at least one relief parcel monthly.
Treatment
of detainees

拘禁者的待遇
第76條 
被保護人被控犯罪者應拘禁於被佔領國內,如經判罪亦應在該國內服刑。如可能,彼等應與其他被拘禁者隔離,並應享有足以保持其健康之飲食與衛生條件,至少亦應與被佔領國監獄內通行之條件相同。

彼等應受到其健康所需之醫藥照顧。

彼等亦應有權受到其所需之心靈上的協助。

婦女應禁閉於分開之處所,並應由婦女直接監管之。

未成年人應受之特別待遇應予以適當之注意。

拘禁之被保護人應有受保護國及紅十字國際委員會代表依照第143條之規定訪問之權。

此項人等應有權領受救濟包裹,至少每月一件。
     
ART. 77.
Protected persons who have been accused of offences or convicted by the courts in occupied territory, shall be handed over at the close of occupation, with the relevant records, to the authorities of the liberated territory.
Handing over
of detainees
at the close of
occupation

結束佔領之拘禁者之移交
第77條 
被保護人之在佔領地被控犯罪或被法庭判罪者,應在佔領終止時,連同有關記錄一併移交該解放地區之當局。
     
ART. 78.
 If the Occupying Power considers it necessary, for imperative reasons of security, to take safety measures concerning protected persons, it may, at the most, subject them to assigned residence or to internment.

Decisions regarding such assigned residence or internment shall be made according to a regular procedure to be prescribed by the Occupying Power in accordance with the provisions of the present Convention. This procedure shall include the right of appeal for the parties concerned. Appeals shall be decided with the least possible delay. In the event of the decision being upheld, it shall be subject to periodical review, if possible every six months, by a competent body set up by the said Power.

Protected persons made subject to assigned residence and thus required to leave their homes shall enjoy the full benefit of Article 39 of the present Convention.
Security
measures.
Internment
and assigned
residence.
Right of
appeal

安全措施。拘留及指定住所。上訴權。
第78條 
如佔領國由於迫切的安全理由認為對被保護人需採取安全措施時,至多得置之於指定居所或加以拘留。

關於此項指定居所或拘留之決定,應按照佔領國依本公約規定所訂之正常程序為之。該項程序應包括各有關當事人之上訴權。上訴應迅速判決。如仍維持原判決,應由佔領國所設立之主管機關定期復核,可能時每六個月一次。

被保護人經指定住所而須離開其家庭者應享受本公約第39條之全部利益。
     
SECTION IV            第四編 拘留人待遇之規定
REGULATIONS FOR THE TREATMENT
OF INTERNEES
CHAPTER I   General Provisions                     第一章 總 則    
ART. 79.
 The Parties to the conflict shall not intern protected persons, except in accordance with the provisions of Articles 41, 42, 43, 68 and 78.
Cases of
internment
and applicable
provisions

拘留和適用條款的情況
第79條
衝突各方,除按照第41、42、43、68與78各條之規定外,不得拘留被保護人。
     
ART. 80.
 Internees shall retain their full civil capacity and shall exercise such attendant rights as may be compatible with their status.
Civil capacity

民事能力
第80條 
拘留人應保有其全部民事能力,並應行使與其地位相合之附隨的權利。
     
ART. 81.
Parties to the conflict who intern protected persons shall be bound to provide free of charge for their maintenance, and to grant them also the medical attention required by their state of health.

No deduction from the allowances, salaries or credits due to the internees shall be made for the repayment of these costs.

The Detaining Power shall provide for the support of those dependent on the internees, if such dependents are without adequate means of support or are unable to earn a living.
Maintenance

生活之維持
第81條 
衝突各方之拘留被保護人者應負責免費維持其生活,並應予以其健康狀況所需之醫藥照顧。

不得扣除拘留人應得之津貼,薪給或債款以償還上項費用。

如拘留人之依附人無適當之維持生活方法或不能謀生時,拘留國應供給其生活。
     
ART. 82.
The Detaining Power shall, as far as possible, accommodate the internees according to their nationality, language and customs. Internees who are nationals of the same country shall not be separated merely because they have different languages.

Throughout the duration of their internment, members of the same family, and in particular parents and children, shall be lodged together in the same place of internment, except when separation of a temporary nature is necessitated for reasons of employment or health or for the purposes of enforcement of the provisions of Chapter IX of the present Section. Internees may request that their children who are left at liberty without parental care shall be interned with them.

Wherever possible, interned members of the same family shall be housed in the same premises and given separate accommodation from other internees, together with facilities for leading a proper family life.
Grouping
of internees

拘留人分組
第82條
拘留國應盡可能依照拘留人之國籍、語言與習慣而容納之。同一國籍之拘留人不得僅因其語言不同而隔離之。

在拘留期間,同一家庭之人,尤其父母子女,應使之居於同一拘留處所,但因工作或健康關係或因執行本編第 九章之規定必須暫時分離時則不在此限。拘留人得要求將其處在自由而無父母照顧之子女與彼等一同拘留。

可能時,同一家庭之拘留人應使其居於同一住所,予以與其他拘留人分開之住宿,以便於引導一個適當的家庭生活。
     
CHAPTER II Places of Internment        第二章 拘禁處     
ART. 83.
 The Detaining Power shall not set up places of internment in areas particularly exposed to the dangers of war.

The Detaining Power shall give the enemy Powers, through the intermediary of the Protecting Powers, all useful information regarding the geographical location of places of internment.

Whenever military considerations permit, internment camps shall be indicated by the letters IC, placed so as to be clearly visible in the daytime from the air. The Powers concerned may, however, agree upon any other system of marking. No place other than an internment camp shall be marked as such.
Location
of places of
internment.
Marking
of camps

拘留地方的位置。
拘留營的標記。
第83條 
拘留國不得將拘留處所設立於特別冒戰爭危險之區域。

拘留國應通過保護國之媒介將有關拘禁處所地理位置之一切有用的情報,提交敵國。

在軍事的考慮許可時,拘禁營應用IC兩字母標明,該二字母應標於白天可自高空清晰望見之處。但有關各國得商定其他標誌方法。除拘禁營外,任何其他地方不得如此標誌之。
     
ART. 84.
Internees shall be accommodated and administered separately from prisoners of war and from persons deprived of liberty for any other reason.
Separate
internment

分別的拘留
第84條
拘留人應與戰俘及因其他任何原因而被剝奪自由之人分別配置及管理。
     
ART. 85.
The Detaining Power is bound to take all necessary and possible measures to ensure that protected persons shall, from the outset of their internment, be accommodated in buildings or quarters which afford every possible safeguard as regards hygiene and health, and provide efficient protection against the rigours of the climate and the effects of the war. In no case shall permanent places of internment be situated in unhealthy areas or in districts the climate of which is injurious to the internees. In all cases where the district, in which a protected person is temporarily interned, is in an unhealthy area or has a climate which is harmful to his health, he shall be removed to a more suitable place of internment as rapidly as circumstances permit.

The premises shall be fully protected from dampness, adequately heated and lighted, in particular between dusk and lights out. The sleeping quarters shall be sufficiently spacious and well ventilated, and the internees shall have suitable bedding and sufficient blankets, account being taken of the climate, and the age, sex, and state of health of the internees.

Internees shall have for their use, day and night, sanitary conveniences which conform to the rules of hygiene and are constantly maintained in a state of cleanliness. They shall be provided with sufficient water and soap for their daily personal toilet and for washing their personal laundry; installations and facilities necessary for this purpose shall be granted to them. Showers or baths shall also be available. The necessary time shall be set aside for washing and for cleaning.

Whenever it is necessary, as an exceptional and temporary measure, to accommodate women internees who are not members of a family unit in the same place of internment as men, the provision of separate sleeping quarters and sanitary conveniences for the use of such women internees shall be obligatory.
Accommodation,
hygiene

住宿。衛生
第85條 
拘留國應採取一切必要及可能之措施,以保證被保護人自拘留開始時起,即被配置於合於下列條件之房屋或住所:在衛生與保健上具備一切可能保障並給予有效保護,以防嚴寒酷熱與戰爭影響。在任何情況下,永久拘留處所不得設於不衛生之區域或氣候有害拘留人之區域。如被保護人暫時拘留區域為不衛生區域或其氣候有害其健康,應視環境所許儘速將其移往較為適當之拘留處所。

住所應無潮濕之患,有適當溫度及光線,尤其在黃昏與熄燈之間。睡眠地方應充分廣敞通風,並應依氣候,及拘留人之年齡、性別及健康狀況,給予充分之墊褥與被毯。

拘留人應有不論日夜均可使用之合於衛生規則之設備,並經常保護清潔;應供以充分用水及肥皂以備日常盥洗及洗濯個人衣服之用;應予以為此所需之設備與便利。又應備有淋浴或盆浴。應保留洗滌及清潔所需之時間。

倘必須,為一種例外及暫時措施,需將非同一家庭之被拘留之婦女與男子配置一處時,此規定是強制性的,對於被拘留之婦女必須予以分開睡眠地方及衛生設備供其使用。
     
ART. 86.
 The Detaining Power shall place at the disposal of interned persons, of whatever denomination, premises suitable for the holding of their religious services.
Premises
for religions
services

宗教服務的場所
第86條 
拘留人不論屬於任何教派,拘留國應給以適於舉行宗教儀式之場所。
     
ART. 87.
Canteens shall be installed in every place of internment, except where other suitable facilities are available.Their purpose shall be to enable internees to make purchases, at prices not higher than local market prices, of foodstuffs and articles of everyday use, including soap and tobacco, such as would increase their personal well-being and comfort.

Profits made by canteens shall be credited to a welfare fund to be set up for each place of internment, and administered for the benefit of the internees attached to such place of internment. The Internee Committee provided for in Article 102 shall have the right to check the management of the canteen and of the said fund.

When a place of internment is closed down, the balance of the welfare fund shall be transferred to the welfare fund of a place of internment for internees of the same nationality, or, if such a place does not exist, to a central welfare fund which shall be administered for the benefit of all internees remaining in the custody of the Detaining Power. In case of a general release, the said profits shall be kept by the Detaining Power, subject to any agreement to the contrary between the Powers concerned.
Canteens

日用品眅賣部
第87條
各拘留處所均應設置販賣部,但另有其他適當之便利者則為例外。其目的應為使拘留人,能以不高於當地市價之價格購買食品及日用品——包括肥皂及煙草——以資增加其個人福利及舒適。

販賣部所獲利潤應劃歸各拘禁處所設立,並為各該處所被拘留人利益而管理之福利基金。第一百零二條規定之拘留人委員會有權檢查販賣部及基金之管理。

拘留處所結束時,福利基金之結餘,應轉撥與拘留同一國籍人民之另一拘禁留所之福利基金;或如無此類之拘禁留所,則應轉撥與為仍在拘留國看管下之全體拘留人之利益而管理之中央福利基金。如有全體釋放情形,此項利潤,除有關國家間議有相反之協定外,應由拘留國保存。
     
ART. 88.
 In all places of internment exposed to air raids and other hazards of war, shelters adequate in number and structure to ensure the necessary protection shall be installed. In case of alarms, the internees shall be free to enter such shelters as quickly as possible, excepting those who remain for the protection of their quarters against the aforesaid hazards. Any protective measures taken in favour of the population shall also apply to them.

All due precautions must be taken in places of internment against the danger of fire.
Air raid
shelters.
Protective
measures

防空洞。
保護措施。
第88條 
在一切冒空襲及其他戰爭危險之拘禁處所內,應設有在數目上與構造上均足保證必要的保護之避難所。在警報時,除留守保護住處免受上述危險之人外,拘留人應得自由儘速進入避難所。任何為居民而採取之保護措施,亦應適用於拘留人。

拘留處所應採用一切防火之適當措施。
     
CHAPTER III  Food and Clothing                      第三章 食物與衣服     
ART. 89.
Daily food rations for internees shall be sufficient in quantity, quality and variety to keep internees in a good state of health and prevent the development of nutritional deficiencies. Account shall also be taken of the customary diet of the internees.

Internees shall also be given the means by which they can prepare for themselves any additional food in their possession.

Sufficient drinking water shall be supplied to internees. The use of tobacco shall be permitted.

Internees who work shall receive additional rations in proportion to the kind of labour which they perform.

Expectant and nursing mothers and children under fifteen years of age shall be given additional food, in proportion to their physiological needs.
Food

食物
第89條 
拘留人每日口糧在量、質與種類上應足以保持拘留人之健康及防止營養不足。拘留人所習慣之飲食,亦應顧及。

拘留人亦應予以自行烹調其自有之額外食物之工具。

對拘留人應供給充分之飲水。應允許吸煙。

從事工作之拘留人應領得比照其所任的工作之額外口糧。

對孕婦、乳母及十五歲以下兒童,應比照其生理需要給予額外食物。
     
ART. 90.
 When taken into custody, internees shall be given all facilities to provide themselves with the necessary clothing, footwear and change of underwear, and later on, to procure further supplies if required. Should any internees not have sufficient clothing, account being taken of the climate, and be unable to procure any, it shall be provided free of charge to them by the Detaining Power.

The clothing supplied by the Detaining Power to internees and the outward markings placed on their own clothes shall not be ignominious nor expose them to ridicule.

Workers shall receive suitable working outfits, including protective clothing, whenever the nature of their work so requires.
Clothing

服裝
第90條 
拘留人當被看管時,應予以自備必需衣服、鞋襪,及內衣替換,以後如需要時,並可再獲得供給之一切便利。如任何拘留人未備有依氣候所需之充分衣服且亦不能獲得衣服者,應由拘留國免費供給之。

拘留國供給拘留人之衣服,及在其私有衣服上所加之標誌,均不得有侮辱性或使其遭受嘲笑。

工作者應領得適當之工作服裝,包括保護衣服,如其工作性質有此必要。
     
CHAPTER IV  Hygiene and Medical Attention           第四章 衛生及醫藥照顧     
ART. 91.
 Every place of internment shall have an adequate infirmary, under the direction of a qualified doctor,where internees may have the attention they require, as well as an appropriate diet. Isolation wards shall be set aside for cases of contagious or mental diseases.

Maternity cases and internees suffering from serious diseases, or whose condition requires special treatment, a surgical operation or hospital care, must be admitted to any institution where adequate treatment can be given and shall receive care not inferior to that provided for the general population.

Internees shall, for preference, have the attention of medical personnel of their own nationality.

Internees may not be prevented from presenting themselves to the medical authorities for examination. The medical authorities of the Detaining Power shall,upon request, issue to every internee who has undergone treatment an official certificate showing the nature of his illness or injury, and the duration and nature of the treatment given. A duplicate of this certificate shall be forwarded to the Central Agency provided for in Article 140.

Treatment, including the provision of any apparatus necessary for the maintenance of internees in good health, particularly dentures and other artificial appliances and spectacles, shall be free of charge to the internee.
Medical
attention

就醫
第91條
各拘留處所應設有適當之療養所,由合格醫生主持,使拘留人可獲得其所需之照顧與適當之飲食。對於患傳染病或精神病者應另設隔離病房。

凡生產及拘留人之患重病者,或需特別治療、外科手術或住院者,應送任何可予以適當醫治之機構,且其所應受到之照顧不得劣於一般居民之所受到者。

拘留人自願時,應得到其本國國籍之醫務人員之照顧。

拘留人請求醫務當局檢查時,不得阻止。

拘留國之醫務當局,一經請求,應對已受治療之拘留人發給正式證書,說明其疾病或傷害之性質,及所受治療之時期與性質。此項證書之副本應送交第一百四十條所規定之中央事務所。

各項醫療,包括為保持拘留人健康需用器具之供給,尤其是假牙及其他假裝置與眼鏡,對於拘留人應予免費。
     
ART. 92.
 Medical inspections of internees shall be made at least once a month. Their purpose shall be, in particular, to supervise the general state of health, nutrition and cleanliness of internees, and to detect contagious diseases, especially tuberculosis, malaria, and venereal diseases. Such inspections shall include, in particular, the checking of weight of each internee and, at least once a year, radioscopic examination.
Medical
inspections

醫學檢查
第92條 
拘留人之健康檢查至少應每月舉行一次。其目的應特別為監察拘留人之一般健康狀況,營養及清潔,並察覺傳染病,特別是肺結核、瘧疾,及性病。此項檢查,尤應包括拘留人之體重測量,及至少每年一次之透視檢查。
     
CHAPTER V  Religious, Intellectual and Physical Activities         第五章 宗教、文化與體育活動 
ART. 93.
Internees shall enjoy complete latitude in the exercise of their religious duties, including attendance at the services of their faith, on condition that they comply with the disciplinary routine prescribed by the detaining authorities.

Ministers of religion who are interned shall be allowed to minister freely to the members of their community. For this purpose, the Detaining Power shall ensure their equitable allocation amongst the various places of internment in which there are internees speaking the same language and belonging to the same religion. Should such ministers be too few in number, the Detaining Power shall provide them with the necessary facilities, including means of transport, for moving from one place to another, and they shall be authorized to visit any internees who are in hospital. Ministers of religion shall be at liberty to correspond on matters concerning their ministry with the religious authorities in the country of detention and, as far as possible, with the international religious organizations of their faith. Such correspondence shall not be considered as forming a part of the quota mentioned in Article 107. It shall, however, be subject to the provisions of Article 112.

When internees do not have at their disposal the assistance of ministers of their faith, or should these latter be too few in number, the local religious authorities of the same faith may appoint, in agreement with the Detaining Power, a minister of the internees’ faith or, if such a course is feasible from a denominational point of view, a minister of similar religion or a qualified layman. The latter shall enjoy the facilities granted to the ministry he has assumed. Persons so appointed shall comply with all regulations laid down by the Detaining Power in the interests of discipline and security.
Religious
duties

對宗教的職責
第93條
拘留人應有履行其宗教義務之完全自由,包括參加其所信仰宗教之儀式,但以遵守拘留國當局規定之例行的紀律措施為條件。

凡被拘留之牧師應許其向本教教徒自由執行宗教任務。為此目的,拘留國應使此類牧師公平分配於用同一語言及屬於同一宗教之拘留人之各拘留處所。倘此類牧師為數過少,則拘留國應供給以必要之便利,包括運輸工具,以便由一地前往他地,並應允許其訪問居住醫院之拘留人。牧師得自由與拘留國教會當局關於其職務上事項自由通訊,並在可能範圍內,與同一信仰之國際宗教組織通訊。該項通信不得視為構成第107條所定限額之一部分,但應受第112條規定之限制。

如拘留人無其本教之牧師之協助,或後者為數過少,則同一信仰之當地宗教機關得與拘留國協議,指派與拘留人同一信仰之牧師,或在宗派觀點上認為可行時,指派類似的宗教之牧師或合格之非宗教人員。後者應享有其所擔任之職務工作之各種便利。此種指派之人員應遵守拘留國為維護紀律及安全而製定之一切規則。
     
ART. 94.
 The Detaining Power shall encourage intellectual, educational and recreational pursuits, sports and games amongst internees, whilst leaving them free to take part in them or not. It shall take all practicable measures to ensure the exercise thereof, in particular by providing suitable premises.

All possible facilities shall be granted to internees to continue their studies or to take up new subjects. The education of children and young people shall be ensured; they shall be allowed to attend schools either within the place of internment or outside.

Internees shall be given opportunities for physical exercise, sports and outdoor games. For this purpose, sufficient open spaces shall be set aside in all places of internment. Special playgrounds shall be reserved for children and young people.
Recreation,
study, sports
and games

娛樂,學習,體育
和遊戲
第94條 
拘留國應鼓勵拘留人之文化、教育與娛樂活動、運動與遊戲,參加與否任其自由。並應採取各種實際措施以保證其實行,尤應供給適當之場所。

對於拘留人之繼續其學習或研究新科目者應予以一切可能之便利。兒童及青年之教育應予保證,應許其在拘禁處所以內或以外之學校讀書。

對拘留人應給予體操、運動及室外遊戲之機會。為此目的,在一切拘留處所應留有充分的開放空間。應為兒童及青年保留特別遊樂運動場。
     
ART. 95.
 The Detaining Power shall not employ internees as workers, unless they so desire. Employment which, if undertaken under compulsion by a protected person not in internment, would involve a breach of Articles 40 or 51 of the present Convention, and employment on work which is of a degrading or humiliating character are in any case prohibited.

After a working period of six weeks, internees shall be free to give up work at any moment, subject to eight days’ notice.

These provisions constitute no obstacle to the right of the Detaining Power to employ interned doctors, dentists and other medical personnel in their professional capacity on behalf of their fellow internees, or to employ internees for administrative and maintenance work in places of internment and to detail such persons for work in the kitchens or for other domestic tasks, or to require such persons to undertake duties connected with the protection of internees against aerial bombardment or other war risks. No internee may, however, be required to perform tasks for which he is, in the opinion of a medical officer, physically unsuited.

The Detaining Power shall take entire responsibility for all working conditions, for medical attention, for the payment of wages, and for ensuring that all employed internees receive compensation for occupational accidents and diseases. The standards prescribed for the said working conditions and for compensation shall be in accordance with the national laws and regulations, and with the existing practice; they shall in no case be inferior to those obtaining for work of the same nature in the same district.Wages for work done shall be determined on an equitable basis by special agreements between the internees, the Detaining Power, and, if the case arises, employers other than the Detaining Power, due regard being paid to the obligation of the Detaining Power to provide for free maintenance of internees and for the medical attention which their state of health may require. Internees permanently detailed for categories of work mentioned in the third paragraph of this Article shall be paid fair wages by the Detaining Power. The working conditions and the scale of compensation for occupational accidents and diseases to internees, thus detailed, shall not be inferior to those applicable to work of the same nature in the same district.
Working
conditions

工作條件
第95條 
除非拘留人自願,拘留國不得僱其為工人。強迫僱用未被拘留之被保護人即屬破壞本公約第40與第51兩條,此項僱用及僱用從事有降低身份或侮辱性質之工作均應絕對禁止。

拘留人在工作六星期後得隨時離工,惟須於八日前通知。

拘留國得為同拘留人僱用被拘留之醫師、牙醫及其他醫務人員從事其職業上的任務,或僱用拘留人擔任拘留處所之管理與保養工作,及分派該項人員擔任廚房或其他內務工作,或令其擔任有關拘留人防禦空襲或其他戰爭危險之保護工作,此等權利,並不因上項規定而受妨礙。但不得令拘留人從事醫官認為與其體力不適合之工作。

拘留國對於工作條件,醫藥照顧,工資支付,及保證受僱之拘留人獲得工作上意外傷害或疾病之賠償,應負完全責任。此項工作條件及賠償之標準,應按照該國法規及現行慣例規定之;絕不得低於同一地區同一性質的工作通用之標準。工資應由拘留人與拘留國及拘留國以外之雇主——如有此情形——之間以特別協定公平決定之,並應對拘留國免費維持拘留人生活,及予以其健康狀況所需之醫藥照顧之義務,加以適當注意。凡拘留人被派長期從事本條第三款所述之各類工作者,應由拘留國付以公平之工資。被派是項工作之拘留人之工作條件、與工作上意外傷害及疾病賠償之標準,不得低於同一地區同一性質的工作所適用之條件及標準。
     
ART. 96.
 All labour detachments shall remain part of and dependent upon a place of internment. The competent authorities of the Detaining Power and the commandant of a place of internment shall be responsible for the observance in a labour detachment of the provisions of the present Convention. The commandant shall keep an up-to-date list of the labour detachments subordinate to him and shall communicate it to the delegates of the Protecting Power, of the International Committee of the Red Cross and of other humanitarian organizations who may visit the places of internment.
Labour
detachments

勞工隊
第96條 
一切勞動隊均仍為拘留處所之一部分並附屬於拘留處所。拘留國主管當局及拘留處所長官應負責使在勞動隊中遵守本公約各項規定。該長官應備有所屬勞動隊之到新近為止之名單,並應送交前來視察拘留處所之保護國,紅十字國際委員會及其他人道組織之代表。
     
CHAPTER VI  Personal Property and Financial Resources   第六章 個人財產及經濟來源
ART. 97.
Internees shall be permitted to retain articles of personal use. Monies, cheques, bonds, etc., and valuables in their possession may not be taken from them except in accordance with established procedure. Detailed receipts shall be given therefor.

The amounts shall be paid into the account of every internee as provided for in Article 98. Such amounts may not be converted into any other currency unless legislation in force in the territory in which the owner is interned so requires or the internee gives his consent.

Articles which have above all a personal or sentimental value may not be taken away.

A woman internee shall not be searched except by a woman.

On release or repatriation, internees shall be given all articles, monies or other valuables taken from them during internment and shall receive in currency the balance of any credit to their accounts kept in accordance with Article 98,with the exception of any articles or amounts withheld by the Detaining Power by virtue of its legislation in force. If the property of an internee is so withheld, the owner shall receive a detailed receipt.

Family or identity documents in the possession of internees may not be taken away without a receipt being given. At no time shall internees be left without identity documents. If they have none, they shall be issued with special documents drawn up by the detaining authorities, which will serve as their identity papers until the end of their internment.

Internees may keep on their persons a certain amount of money, in cash or in the shape of purchase coupons, to enable them to make purchases.
Valuables
and personal
effects

貴重物品及個人財物
第97條 
拘留人應許其保有個人用品。除按照規定之手續外,不得取去其所持有之錢幣、支票、債券等及貴重物品。凡取去之物品應開給詳細收據。

款項應登入第98條所規定之拘留人帳目之內。此種款項不得換成任何其他貨幣,除非該款項所有人之被拘留領土之現行立法有此規定,或拘留人表示同意。

具有個人或情感價值之物品,不得取去。

被拘留之婦女僅得由婦女搜查。

拘留人釋放或遣返時,應給還在拘留期間被取去之物品,錢幣或其他貴重物品,其按照第98條所立之帳目中之結餘款項,亦應以現款付給之,但拘留國按照現行立法予以扣留之物品或款項除外。拘留人之財物因此被扣留者,應給予其所有人以詳細收據。

凡拘留人所有之家庭或身份證明文件,非經開給收據不得取去。無論何時不得使拘留人無身份證明文件。若無身份證明文件,拘留國當局應發給特別證件,在拘留終止前作為其身份證明文件。

拘留人得隨身保有一定數目之金錢、現款或購物券,以便其購買物品。
     
ART. 98.
 All internees shall receive regular allowances, sufficient to enable them to purchase goods and articles, such as tobacco, toilet requisites, etc. Such allowances may take the form of credits or purchase coupons.

Furthermore, internees may receive allowances from the Power to which they owe allegiance, the Protecting Powers, the organizations which may assist them, or their families, as well as the income on their property in accordance with the law of the Detaining Power. The amount of allowances granted by the Power to which they owe allegiance shall be the same for each category of internees (infirm, sick, pregnant women, etc.), but may not be allocated by that Power or distributed by the Detaining Power on the basis of discriminations between internees which are prohibited by Article 27 of the present Convention.

The Detaining Power shall open a regular account for every internee, to which shall be credited the allowances named in the present Article, the wages earned and the remittances received, together with such sums taken from him as may be available under the legislation in force in the territory in which he is interned. Internees shall be granted all facilities consistent with the legislation in force in such territory to make remittances to their families and to other dependants. They may draw from their accounts the amounts necessary for their personal expenses, within the limits fixed by the Detaining Power. They shall at all times be afforded reasonable facilities for consulting and obtaining copies of their accounts. A statement of accounts shall be furnished to the Protecting Power on request, and shall accompany the internee in case of transfer.
Financial
resources and
individual
accounts

經濟來源和個人賬戶
第98條 
拘留人應獲得經常津貼,足敷其購買物品,如煙草、盥洗用品等之需。該項津貼得採用記帳或購物券形式。

拘留人亦得接受其所隸屬國家,保護國,可予以協助之組織,或其家庭之津貼,以及按照拘留國法律自其財產所得之收入。其所隸屬國家所給予之津貼數目,對於同屬一類之拘留人(弱者、病者、孕婦等)均須相等,而該國或拘留國均不得根據本公約第27條所禁止之對拘留人之歧視標准予以分配。

拘留國對每一拘留人應開立經常帳目,以便存入本條所述之各項津貼,及所得工資與所收到之匯款,連同自彼取去而依其被拘禁地之現行立法可以動用之款項。對拘留人應按照當地現行立法予以匯款於其家庭及其他依賴以生活之人之一切便利,拘留人在拘留國所定之限制內,得自其帳目內支取個人費用所需款項。應隨時有查詢其帳目或獲得其帳目之抄本之相當的便利。如經請求,應以帳目清單送交保護國。拘留人被移送他處時,此項帳目清單應一同移送。
     
CHAPTER VII  Administration and Discipline                                     第七章 管理及紀律
ART. 99.
 Every place of internment shall be put under the authority of a responsible officer, chosen from the regular military forces or the regular civil administration of the Detaining Power. The officer in charge of the place of internment must have in his possession a copy of the present Convention in the official language, or one of the official languages, of his country and shall be responsible for its application. The staff in control of internees shall be instructed in the provisions of the present Convention and of the administrative measures adopted to ensure its application.

The text of the present Convention and the texts of special agreements concluded under the said Convention shall be posted inside the place of internment, in a language which the internees understand,or shall be in the possession of the Internee Committee.

Regulations, orders, notices and publications of every kind shall be communicated to the internees and posted inside the places of internment, in a language which they understand.

Every order and command addressed to internees individually must likewise be given in a language which they understand.
Camp
administration.
Posting of the
Convention
and of orders

拘留所管理。張貼公約及命令。
第99條 
各拘留處所均應由一負責官員管理,該官員由拘留國正規武裝部隊或正規民政機關內選任之。管理拘留處所之官員必須備有其本國正式文字,或正式文字之一之本公約抄本一份,並應負責實施本公約。管理拘留人之職員應教以本公約之規定及所採用以保證本公約實施之行政措施。

本公約及根據本公約所訂之特別協定之條文,均應以拘留人所了解之文字張貼於拘留處所內,或由拘留人委員會保存之。

各種規則、命令、通告或出版物均應以拘留人所了解之文字向其傳達,並在拘留處所內張貼之。

所有對拘留人個人所下之命令亦應用其所了解之文字。
     
ART. 100.
 The disciplinary regime in places of internment shall be consistent with humanitarian principles, and shall in no circumstances include regulations imposing on internees any physical exertion dangerous to their health or involving physical or moral victimization. Identification by tattooing or imprinting signs or markings on the body, is prohibited.

In particular, prolonged standing and roll-calls, punishment drill, military drill and manoeuvres, or the reduction of food rations, are prohibited.
General
discipline

普遍的紀律
第100條 
拘留處所之紀律制度應與人道之原則相符合,絕不得包括對拘留人加以妨礙其健康之體力運用或致其身體上或精神上之犧牲之規則。以剌字或在身體上印成符號或標記為辨別身份之方法,均所禁止。

長時間之站立與點名、罰操、軍操與軍事演習或減少口糧量尤所禁止。
     
ART. 101.
 Internees shall have the right to present to the authorities in whose power they are, any petition with regard to the conditions of internment to which they are subjected.

They shall also have the right to apply without restriction through the Internee Committee or, if they consider it necessary, direct to the representatives of the Protecting Power, in order to indicate to them any points on which they may have complaints to make with regard to the conditions of internment.

Such petitions and complaints shall be transmitted forthwith and without alteration, and even if the latter are recognized to be unfounded, they may not occasion any punishment.

Periodic reports on the situation in places of internment and as to the needs of the internees may be sent by the Internee Committees to the representatives of the Protecting Powers.
Complaints
and petitions

投訴和請願
第101條 
拘留人有向管制當局提出有關拘留情況之任何訴願之權。

拘留人亦應有權無限制的通過拘留人委員會,或如其認為必要時,直接向保護國代表申述其對於拘留情況有所申訴之處。

該項訴願與申訴應立予傳遞,不加更改;即使認為所提申訴並無根據,亦不得因此加以處罰。

拘留人委員會得向保護國代表致送關於拘留處所情形及拘留人的需要之定期報告。
     
ART. 102.
In every place of internment, the internees shall freely elect by secret ballot every six months, the members of a Committee empowered to represent them before the Detaining and the Protecting Powers, the International Committee of the Red Cross and any other organization which may assist them. The members of the Committee shall be eligible for re-election.

Internees so elected shall enter upon their duties after their election has been approved by the detaining authorities. The reasons for any refusals or dismissals shall be communicated to the Protecting Powers concerned.
Internee
Committees
I.
Election of
members

拘留人委員會
I.成員的選舉
第102條 
在各拘留處所內,拘留人應每六個月以秘密投票方式自由選舉委員會委員,該委員會有權向拘留國、保護國、紅十字國際委員會及予以協助之任何其他組織,代表拘留人。該委員會委員連選得連任。

凡當選之拘留人在拘留國當局批准其選舉後,應即執行職務。任何拒絕批准或撤職之理由均應通知有關之保護國。
     
ART. 103.
 The Internee Committees shall further the physical, spiritual and intellectual well-being of the internees.

In case the internees decide, in particular, to organize a system of mutual assistance amongst themselves, this organization would be within the competence of the Committees in addition to the special duties entrusted to them under other provisions of the present Convention.
II.
Duties

II.職責
第103條 
拘留人委員會應促進拘留人之物質、精神及文化福利。

於本公約其他規定賦予拘留人委員會之特殊任務之外,如拘留人特別決定自行組織互助制度時,則此項組織亦當屬於該委員會之任務範圍。
     
ART. 104.
Members of Internee Committees shall not be required to perform any other work, if the accomplishment of their duties is rendered more difficult thereby.

Members of Internee Committees may appoint from amongst the internees such assistants as they may require. All material facilities shall be granted to them, particularly a certain freedom of movement necessary for the accomplishment of their duties (visits to labour detachments, receipt of supplies, etc.).

All facilities shall likewise be accorded to members of Internee Committees for communication by post and telegraph with the detaining authorities, the Protecting Powers, the International Committee of the Red Cross and their delegates, and with the organizations which give assistance to internees, Committee members in labour detachments shall enjoy similar facilities for communication with their Internee Committee in the principal place of internment. Such communications shall not be limited, nor considered as forming a part of the quota mentioned in Article 107.

Members of Internee Committees who are transferred shall be allowed a reasonable time to acquaint their successors with current affairs.
III.
Prerogatives

III.特權
第104條 
拘留人委員會委員不應令其擔任其他工作,假使因此將使其任務的完成更為困難。

拘留人委員會委員得自拘留人中指派其所需之助理人員。應給予彼等一切物質上之便利,尤其為完成其任務所需之若干行動自由(如視察勞動隊,接受供應品等)。

對拘留人委員會委員亦應予以與拘留國當局、保護國、紅十字國際委員會與其代表以及其他協助被拘留人之各項組織,郵電通訊之一切便利。勞動隊中之該委員會委員應享受與主要的拘留處所之拘留人委員會類似之通訊便利。該項通訊應不受限制,亦不得認為構成第107條所指限額之一部分。

拘留人委員會委員之被移送他處者,應予以相當時間,以便將進行中之事務告知其後任。
     
CHAPTER VIII  Relations with the Exterior    第八章 與外界之關係    
ART. 105.
Immediately upon interning protected persons, the Detaining Powers shall inform them, the Power to which they owe allegiance and their Protecting Power of the measures taken for executing the provisions of the present Chapter. The Detaining Powers shall likewise inform the Parties concerned of any subsequent modifications of such measures.
Notification
of measures
taken

措施採取的通知
第105條
拘留國一經拘留被保護人後,應將其執行本章各項規定所采之措施立即通知拘留人,其所隸屬之國以及其保護國。此類措施嗣後如有更改,拘留國應同樣通知有關各方。
     
ART. 106.
 As soon as he is interned, or at the latest not more than one week after his arrival in a place of internment, and likewise in cases of sickness or transfer to another place of internment or to a hospital, every internee shall be enabled to send direct to his family, on the one hand, and to the Central Agency provided for by Article 140, on the other, an internment card similar, if possible, to the model annexed to the present Convention, informing his relatives of his detention, address and state of health. The said cards shall be forwarded as rapidly as possible and may not be delayed in any way.
Internment
card

拘留卡
第107條 
拘留人一經被拘留時,或最遲在其到達拘留處所後一星期內,或在染病或移送其他拘留處所或醫院之場合,均應使其能直接向其家庭,同時並向第140條所載之中央事務所寄發拘留郵片,將其被拘留情形、地址及健康狀況告知其親屬;該郵片,如屬可能,當與本公約所附之式樣相類似。上述郵片應儘速傳遞,無論如何不得遲延。
     
ART. 107.
 Internees shall be allowed to send and receive letters and cards. If the Detaining Power deems it necessary to limit the number of letters and cards sent by each internee, the said number shall not be less than two letters and four cards monthly; these shall be drawn up so as to conform as closely as possible to the models annexed to the present Convention. If limitations must be placed on the correspondence addressed to internees, they may be ordered only by the Power to which such internees owe allegiance, possibly at the request of the Detaining Power. Such letters and cards must be conveyed with reasonable despatch; they may not be delayed or retained for disciplinary reasons.

Internees who have been a long time without news, or who find it impossible to receive news from their relatives, or to give them news by the ordinary postal route, as well as those who are at a considerable distance from their homes, shall be allowed to send telegrams, the charges being paid by them in the currency at their disposal.They shall likewise benefit by this provision in cases which are recognized to be urgent.

As a rule, internees’mail shall be written in their own language. The Parties to the conflict may authorize correspondence in other languages.
Correspondence

信件
第107條 
拘留人應許其發收信件及郵片。如拘留國認為有限制每人所發信件及郵片數目之必要時,則其數目不得少於每月信二封及郵片四張;該信件與郵片之式樣應盡可能依照本公約所附之格式製定。如拘留人收信數目必須限制時,則僅能由拘留人所隸屬之國家予以規定,可能因拘留國請求而行之。該項信件與郵片必須以相當速度遞送;不得遲延或為紀律理由而扣留。

凡拘留人之久未得音信者,或不能由普通郵路獲得其親屬之消息,或向彼等寄遞消息者,以及離家遙遠者,應許其拍發電報,其費用由彼等以其所持有之貨幣支付。如認有緊急情況,彼等亦應同樣享受此項規定之利益。

通常拘留人之信件,應用其本國文字書寫。衝突各方亦得許用其他文字通訊。
     
ART. 108.
 Internees shall be allowed to receive, by post or by any other means, individual parcels or collective shipments containing in particular foodstuffs, clothing, medical supplies, as well as books and objects of a devotional, educational or recreational character which may meet their needs. Such shipments shall in no way free the Detaining Power from the obligations imposed upon it by virtue of the present Convention.

Should military necessity require the quantity of such shipments to be limited, due notice thereof shall be given to the Protecting Power and to the International Committee of the Red Cross, or to any other organization giving assistance to the internees and responsible for the forwarding of such shipments.

The conditions for the sending of individual parcels and collective shipments shall, if necessary, be the subject of special agreements between the Powers concerned, which may in no case delay the receipt by the internees of relief supplies. Parcels of clothing and foodstuffs may not include books. Medical relief supplies shall, as a rule, be sent in collective parcels.
Relief
shipments
I.
General
principles

救濟品載送
I.
一般原則
第108條 
凡由郵政或其他方法送交拘留人之個人包裹或集體寄運物資,尤其內裝食物、衣服、醫療用品、書籍,以及有關彼等所需之宗教、教育或娛樂性質之物品,均應允許彼等接受。此等裝運物資並不免除拘留國按照本公約所負之各項義務。

倘因軍事需要而須限制此等裝運物資之數量時,應將此種情況妥為通知保護國及紅十字國際委員會,或其他協助拘留人並負責寄運上項物資之組織。

寄運個人包裹與集體物資之條件,必要時,應由有關國家特別協定之,惟該項協定不得遲延拘留人之收領救濟物品。衣服食品包裹中不得夾有書籍。醫療救濟物資通常應以集體
包裹寄送之。
     
ART. 109.
 In the absence of special agreements between Parties to the conflict regarding the conditions for the receipt and distribution of collective relief shipments, the regulations concerning collective relief which are annexed to the present Convention shall be applied.

The special agreements provided for above shall in no case restrict the right of Internee Committees to take possession of collective relief shipments intended for internees, to undertake their distribution and to dispose of them in the interests of the recipients.

Nor shall such agreements restrict the right of representatives of the Protecting Powers, the International Committee of the Red Cross, or any other organization giving assistance to internees and responsible for the forwarding of collective shipments, to supervise their distribution to the recipients.
II.
Collective
relief

II.
集體救濟
第一〇九條  衝突各方對於集體救濟裝運物資之接受與分配之條件,如無特別協定,則應適用本公約所附之關於集體救濟之規則。
上述特別協定,絕不得限制拘留人委員會接收寄交彼等之集體救濟裝運物資,進行分配,以及為受物人利益而處置該項物品之權。
上述協定亦不得限制保護國,紅十字國際委員會,或其他協助拘留人並負責轉送集體裝運物資之組織之代表,監督分發該項物資於受物人之權。
     
ART. 110.
All relief shipments for internees shall be exempt from import, customs and other dues.

All matter sent by mail, including relief parcels sent by parcel post and remittances of money, addressed from other countries to internees or despatched by them through the post office, eitherdirect or through the Information Bureaux provided for in Article 136 and the Central Information Agency provided for in Article 140, shall be exempt from all postal dues both in the countries of origin and destination and in intermediate countries. To this end, in particular, the exemption provided by the Universal Postal Convention of 1947 and by the agreements of the Universal Postal Union in favour of civilians of enemy nationality detained in camps or civilian prisons, shall be extended to the other interned persons protected by the present Convention. The countries not signatory to the above-mentioned agreements shall be bound to grant freedom from charges in the same circumstances.

The cost of transporting relief shipments which are intended for internees and which, by reason of their weight or any other cause, cannot be sent through the post office, shall be borne by the Detaining Power in all the territories under its control. Other Powers which are Parties to the present Convention shall bear the cost of transport in their respective territories.

Costs connected with the transport of such shipments, which are not covered by the above paragraphs, shall be charged to the senders.

The High Contracting Parties shall endeavour to reduce, so far as possible, the charges for telegrams sent by internees, or addressed to them.
III.
Exemption
from postal
and
transport
charges

III.
免郵資及運費
第110條 
所有寄交拘留人之救濟裝運物資應豁免進口、海關及其他捐稅。

凡自其他國家由郵政寄與拘留人之一切物件,包括郵寄之救濟包裹及匯款,或彼等經郵局寄出之物件,無論直接寄出或經由第136條所規定之情報局及第140條所規定之中央情報事務所寄遞者,在寄出國、寄達國,及中途經過之國家均應豁免一切郵政費用。因此,1947年萬國郵政公約及萬國郵政聯盟所訂之協定為拘禁於營地或普通監獄之敵國平民而規定之豁免辦法,尤應推廣適用於本公約所保護之其他拘留人。凡未簽訂上述各協定之國家遇有同樣情形亦應豁免各項費用。

凡寄交拘留人之救濟裝運物資因重量或其他原因不能自郵局寄遞者,則在拘留國控制之領土內之運費應由拘留國負擔。本公約之其他締約國應負擔各該國領土內之運費。

有關運輸此類物資之各種費用而為以上各款所未及規定者,應由寄物人負擔。

各締約國對於拘留人所收發之電報應盡量減低其報費。
     
ART. 111.
 Should military operations prevent the Powers concerned from fulfilling their obligation to ensure the conveyance of the mail and relief shipments provided for in Articles 106,107, 108 and 113, the Protecting Powers concerned, the International Committee of the Red Cross or any other organization duly approved by the Parties to the conflict may undertake the conveyance of such shipments by suitable means (rail, motor vehicles, vessels or aircraft, etc.). For this purpose, the High Contracting Parties shall endeavour to supply them with such transport, and to allow its circulation, especially by granting the necessary safe-conducts.

Such transport may also be used to convey:
a) correspondence, lists and reports exchanged between the Central Information Agency referred to in Article 140 and the National Bureaux referred to in Article 136;
b) correspondence and reports relating to internees which the Protecting Powers, the International Committee of the Red Cross or any other organization assisting the internees exchange either with their own delegates or with the Parties to the conflict.

These provisions in no way detract from the right of any Party to the conflict to arrange other means of transport if it should so prefer, nor preclude the granting of safe-conducts, under mutually agreed conditions, to such means of transport.

The costs occasioned by the use of such means of transport shall be borne, in proportion to the importance of the shipments, by the Parties to the conflict whose nationals are benefited thereby.
Special
means of
transport

特殊運輸方式
第111條
如軍事行動使有關國家不能履行其義務以保證第106、107、108及113各條所規定之郵件與救濟物資之運送時,則有關之保護國、紅十字國際委員會或衝突各方正式承認之其他組織得採取適當方法(鐵路、汽車、船舶或飛機等),以確保上項物資之運送。為此目的,各締約國應設法供給此類運輸工具,並准其通行,尤鬚髮給必需之通行證。

此種運輸工具亦可用以載送:
a)第140條所述之中央情報事務所與第136條所述之各國情報局間之來往信件,表冊及報告。
b)保護國,紅十字國際委員會,或其他協助拘留人之組織與其所派之代表與衝突各方間來往有關拘留人之通訊與報告。

上項規定絕不影響任何衝突一方自願佈置其他運輸工具之權利,亦不妨礙在彼此同意條件下,對該項運輸工具發給通行證。

凡使用上述運輸工具所需之費用,應比照裝運物資之重要性由受益人所屬之衝突各方分擔之。
     
ART. 112.
 The censoring of correspondence addressed to internees or despatched by them shall be done as quickly as possible.

The examination of consignments intended for internees shall not be carried out under conditions that will expose the goods contained in them to deterioration. It shall be done in the presence of the addressee, or of a fellow-internee duly delegated by him. The delivery to internees of individual or collective consignments shall not be delayed under the pretext of difficulties of censorship.

Any prohibition of correspondence ordered by the Parties to the conflict either for military or political reasons, shall be only temporary and its duration shall be as short as possible.
Censorship
and
examination

審查和檢查
第112條 
對於拘留人來往信件之檢查應儘速辦理。

對於寄交拘留人裝運物資之檢驗,不得在致使其內裝物品受損壞之情形下執行。檢驗應在收件人,或其所正式委託之同拘留人之面前執行之。凡拘留人之個人或集體之裝運物資,不得以檢查困難為藉口,延遲交付。

衝突各方無論為軍事或政治理由對於通訊之禁止,應僅屬暫時性,其期限應盡量縮短。
     
ART. 113.
 The Detaining Powers shall provide all reasonable facilities for the transmission, through the Protecting Power or the Central Agency provided for in Article 140, or as otherwise required, of wills, powers of attorney, letters of authority, or any other documents intended for internees or despatched by them.

In all cases the Detaining Powers shall facilitate the execution and authentication in due legal form of such documents on behalf of internees, in particular by allowing them to consult a lawyer.
Execution
and
transmission
of legal
documents

執行及傳送法律文書
第113條 
拘留國對於通過保護國或第140條所規定之中央事務所或其他必需方法送交拘留人或其寄出之遺囑、委託書、授權書或其他文件之轉遞,應予以一切合理之便利。

在一切情況下,拘留國對於為拘留人依法定格式完成並證實上述文件應予以便利,尤應允許拘留人諮詢律師。
     
ART. 114.
 The Detaining Power shall afford internees all facilities to enable them to manage their property, provided this is not incompatible with the conditions of internment and the law which is applicable. For this purpose, the said Power may give them permission to leave the place of internment in urgent cases and if circumstances allow.
Management
of property

財產管理
第114條
拘留國應給予拘留人一切便利,使其能管理其財產,但須與拘留情形及適用之法律並無不合。為此目的,遇有緊急情形及環境許可時,拘留國得允許拘留人離開拘留 處所。
     
ART. 115.
 In all cases where an internee is a party to proceedings in any court, the Detaining Power shall, if he so requests, cause the court to be informed of his detention and shall, within legal limits, ensure that all necessary steps are taken to prevent him from being in any way prejudiced, by reason of his internment, as regards the preparation and conduct of his case or as regards the execution of any judgment of the court.
Facilities for
preparation
and conduct
of cases

便於訟案準備及進行
第115條
遇有拘留人在任何法庭中為訴訟當事人之一切場合,拘留國一經其請求,應使法庭知其係在拘留中,並應在法律範圍內保證採取一切必要步驟,務使該拘留人對於訟案之準備與進行,或法庭判決之執行不致因其拘留而處於不利之地位。
     
ART. 116.
 Every internee shall be allowed to receive visitors, especially near relatives, at regular intervals and as frequently as possible.

As far as is possible, internees shall be permitted to visit their homes in urgent cases, particularly in cases of death or serious illness of relatives.
Visits

訪問
第116條 
拘留人應許其按一定時期,而且盡可能時常接見來訪者,尤其近親。

遇有緊急情形,尤其遇有親屬死亡或重病之場合,應盡可能準許拘留人回家。
     
CHAPTER IX  Penal and Disciplinary Sanctions                            第九章 刑事及紀律制裁 
ART. 117.
Subject to the provisions of the present Chapter, the laws in force in the territory in which they are detained will continue to apply to internees who commit offences during internment.

If general laws, regulations or orders declare acts committed by internees to be punishable, whereas the same acts are not punishable when committed by persons who are not internees, such acts shall entail disciplinary punishments only.

No internee may be punished more than once for the same act, or on the same count.
General
provisions.
Applicable
legislation

總則
適用的法律
第117條 
在本章規定之限制下,現行之拘禁法律對於在拘留中犯法之拘留人繼續適用。

設若普通法律,規則或命令宣布拘留人所犯之行為應受處罰,而同一行為如為非拘留人所犯,則不受處罰,則對拘留人之該項行為,應僅予以紀律處罰。

拘留人不得因同一行為或同一罪名受一次以上之處罰。
     
ART. 118.
 The courts or authorities shall in passing sentence take as far as possible into account the fact that the defendant is not a national of the Detaining Power. They shall be free to reduce the penalty prescribed for the offence with which the internee is charged and shall not be obliged, to this end, to apply the minimum sentence prescribed.

Imprisonment in premises without daylight, and, in general, all forms of cruelty without exception are forbidden.

Internees who have served disciplinary or judicial sentences shall not be treated differently from other internees.

The duration of preventive detention undergone by an internee shall be deducted from any disciplinary or judicial penalty involving confinement to which he may be sentenced.

Internee Committees shall be informed of all judicial proceedings instituted against internees whom they represent, and of their result.
Penalties

刑罰
第118條 
法庭或當局作判決時,應盡量顧及被告並非拘留國人民之一事實。法庭或當局得自由酌減拘留人因所犯罪行應受之刑罰,因此並無必須援用規定最低刑罰之義務。

監禁於不見日光之房屋及各種虐待,無例外地,應予禁止。

凡受紀律或司法判決之拘留人,不得受與其他拘留人不同之待遇。

凡拘留人曾受預防性拘禁者,其拘留期間,應自其可能被判之涉及禁閉之紀律或司法懲罰之日期減除之。

對於被拘留人委員會應將對其所代表之拘留人之司法訴訟,及其結果通知之。
     
ART. 119.
 The disciplinary punishments applicable to internees shall be the following:
1) A fine which shall not exceed 50 per cent of the wages which the internee would otherwise receive under the provisions of Article 95 during a period of not more than thirty days.
2) Discontinuance of privileges granted over and above the treatment provided for by the present Convention.
3) Fatigue duties, not exceeding two hours daily, in connection with the maintenance of the place of internment.
4) Confinement.

In no case shall disciplinary penalties be inhuman, brutal or dangerous for the health of internees.Account shall be taken of the internee’s age, sex and state of health.

The duration of any single punishment shall in no case exceed a maximum of thirty consecutive days, even if the internee is answerable for several breaches of discipline when his case is dealt with, whether such breaches are connected or not.
Disciplinary
punishments

紀律處罰
第119條 
適用於拘留人之紀律處罰應如下:
1)罰款不得超過拘留人按照第95條規定所應能獲得的不超過三十日期間之工資之百分之五十。
2)停止其所受超過本公約規定待遇之特權。
3)與保養拘留處所有關之疲勞服役,每日不超過兩小時。
4)禁閉。

紀律處罰絕不得為非人道的,殘暴或危及拘留人健康。拘留人之年齡、性別及健康狀況,應予顧及。

任何一次處罰之期限最多絕不得超過連續三十日,即使該拘留人在被處分時負有數次互相關聯或不關聯之破壞紀律行為之責任。
     
ART. 120.
Internees who are recaptured after having escaped or when attempting to escape, shall be liable only to disciplinary punishment in respect of this act, even if it is a repeated offence.

Article 118, paragraph 3, notwithstanding, internees punished as a result of escape or attempt to escape,may be subjected to special surveillance, on condition that such surveillance does not affect the state of their health, that it is exercised in a place of internment and that it does not entail the abolition of any of the safeguards granted by the present Convention.

Internees who aid and abet an escape, or attempt to escape, shall be liable on this count to disciplinary punishment only.
Escapes

脫逃
第120條 
拘留人脫逃後復被拘獲或企圖脫逃者,對其脫逃行為僅能予以紀律處罰,即使係屬累犯。

雖有第118條第三款之規定,但拘留人因脫逃或因企圖脫逃而受處罰者,得加以特別監視,惟該項監視不得影響彼等健康,且須在拘留處所內執行,並不得因而取消本公約所給予彼等之保障。

拘留人幫助,教唆脫逃或企圖脫逃者,僅能因此受紀律處罰。
     
ART. 121.
 Escape, or attempt to escape, even if it is a repeated offence, shall not be deemed an aggravating circumstance in cases where an internee is prosecuted for offences committed during his escape.

The Parties to the conflict shall ensure that the competent authorities exercise leniency in deciding whether punishment inflicted for an offence shall be of a disciplinary or judicial nature, especially in respect of acts committed in connection with an escape, whether successful or not.
Connected
offences

連續的罪行
第121條 
當拘留人因脫逃中所犯之罪行而受訴追時,不得因其脫逃或企圖脫逃,即使係屬累犯,而加重其罪情。

衝突各方應保證主管當局在決定一過犯之處罰應屬紀律性或司法性時,持之以寬大,尤其與已成功或未成功的脫逃有關之行為。
     
ART. 122.
 Acts which constitute offences against discipline shall be investigated immediately. This rule shall be applied, in particular, in cases of escape or attempt to escape. Recaptured internees shall be handed over to the competent authorities as soon as possible.

In case of offences against discipline, confinement awaiting trial shall be reduced to an absolute minimum for all internees, and shall not exceed fourteen days. Its duration shall in any case be deducted from any sentence of confinement.

The provisions of Articles 124 and 125 shall apply to internees who are in confinement awaiting trial for offences against discipline.
Investigations.
Confinement
awaiting
hearing

調查。待審之禁閉。
第122條 
構成違犯紀律之行為應立即予以調查。本規定尤應適用於脫逃或企圖脫逃案件。再被拘捕之拘留人應儘速送交主管當局。

拘留人因違犯紀律等候處理之禁閉期間,應盡量減短,並不得超過十四日。該項期間應自其任何判處之禁閉中扣除之。

第124及第125兩條之規定應適用於因違犯紀律等候處理而受禁閉之拘留人。
     
ART. 123.
 Without prejudice to the competence of courts and higher authorities, disciplinary punishment may be ordered only by the commandant of the place of internment, or by a responsible officer or official who replaces him, or to whom he has delegated his disciplinary powers.

Before any disciplinary punishment is awarded, the accused internee shall be given precise information regarding the offences of which he is accused, and given an opportunity of explaining his conduct and of defending himself.  He shall be permitted, in particular, to call witnesses and to have recourse, if necessary, to the services of a qualified interpreter. The decision shall be announced in the presence of the accused and of a member of the Internee Committee.

The period elapsing between the time of award of a disciplinary punishment and its execution shall not exceed one month.

When an internee is awarded a further disciplinary punishment, a period of at least three days shall elapse between the execution of any two of the punishments, if the duration of one of these is ten days or more.

A record of disciplinary punishments shall be maintained by the commandant of the place of internment and shall be open to inspection by representatives of the Protecting Power.
Competent
authorities.
Procedure

主管機關。程序。
第123條
在不妨礙法庭及上級當局之權限範圍內,紀律性處罰僅能由拘留處所之長官,或代替該長官之負責官員,或由其委以紀律權之官員之命令行之。

在裁定紀律性處罰前,應將關於其所被控之過犯之確切案情通知拘留人,並予以解釋其行為及辯護之機會。尤應許其召喚證人,並於必要時,使用合格之譯員。判決應在被告及拘留人委員會一委員之前宣布之。

紀律性處罰的裁定及其執行之相隔時期,不得超過一個月。

拘留人再度被判紀律性處罰時,如其前後兩次處罰中之一次之時期為十日或十日以上,則該兩次處罰之執行,其間至少須隔三日。

紀律性處罰之紀錄,應由拘留處所之長官保存,並得由保護國代表檢查。
     
ART. 124.
 Internees shall not in any case be transferred to penitentiary establishments (prisons, penitentiaries, convict prisons, etc.) to undergo disciplinary punishment therein.

The premises in which disciplinary punishments are undergone shall conform to sanitary requirements; they shall in particular be provided with adequate bedding. Internees undergoing punishment shall be enabled to keep themselves in a state of cleanliness.

Women internees undergoing disciplinary punishment shall be confined in separate quarters from male internees and shall be under the immediate supervision of women.
Premises for
disciplinary
punishments

紀律處罰之場所
第124條 
拘留人絕不得移送於反省機關(監所、反省院、已決犯監獄)受紀律性處罰。

執行紀律性處罰之處所應合於衛生條件;尤須備有充分之被褥。受處罰之拘留人應使能保持身體清潔。

受紀律性處罰之拘留婦女之禁閉地方應與被拘留男子分開,並應由婦女直接監管。
     
ART. 125.
 Internees awarded disciplinary punishment shall be allowed to exercise and to stay in the open air at least two hours daily.

They shall be allowed, if they so request, to be present at the daily medical inspections. They shall receive the attention which their state of health requires and, if necessary, shall be removed to the infirmary of the place of internment or to a hospital.

They shall have permission to read and write, likewise to send and receive letters. Parcels and remittances of money, however, may be withheld from them until the completion of their punishment; such consignments shall meanwhile be entrusted to the Internee Committee, who will hand over to the infirmary the perishable goods contained in the parcels.

No internee given a disciplinary punishment may be deprived of the benefit of the provisions of Articles 107 and 143 of the present Convention.
Essential
safeguards

必要的保障措施
第125條 
被判紀律性處罰之拘留人,應許其運動及在露天地方停留每日至少二小時。

拘留人請求時,應許其參加每日之健康檢查。拘留人應獲得其健康情形所需要之照顧,於必要時,並應將其送往拘留處所之療養所或醫院。

彼等應準閱讀及書寫並收發信件。但寄給彼等之包裹及匯款得予扣留,直至其處罰期滿為止;在此期間此等物品應暫交拘留人委員會保管,該會當將包裹中易於腐壞之物品交與療養所。

受紀律性處罰之拘留人所享有本公約第107及143兩條各項規定之利益不得予以剝奪。
     
ART. 126.
 The provisions of Articles 71 to 76 inclusive shall apply, by analogy, to proceedings against internees who are in the national territory of the Detaining Power.
Provisions
applicable to
judicial
proceedings

適用於司法程序的規定
第126條
第71條至第76條之規定,應依比照,適用於在拘留國本國領土內,對拘留人之訴訟。
     
CHAPTER X  Transfers of Internees                       第十章 拘留人之移送
ART. 127.
 The transfer of internees shall always be effected humanely. As a general rule, it shall be carried out by rail or other means of transport, and under conditions at least equal to those obtaining for the forces of the Detaining Power in their changes of station. If, as an exceptional measure, such removals have to be effected on foot, they may not take place unless the internees are in a fit state of health, and may not in any case expose them to excessive fatigue.

The Detaining Power shall supply internees during transfer with drinking water and food sufficient in quantity,quality and variety to maintain them in good health, and also with the necessary clothing, adequate shelter and the necessary medical attention. The Detaining Power shall take all suitable precautions to ensure their safety during transfer, and shall establish before their departure a complete list of all internees transferred.

Sick, wounded or infirm internees and maternity cases shall not be transferred if the journey would be seriously detrimental to them, unless their safety imperatively so demands.

If the combat zone draws close to a place of internment, the internees in the said place shall not be transferred unless their removal can be carried out in adequate conditions of safety, or unless they are exposed to greater risks by remaining on the spot than by being transferred.

When making decisions regarding the transfer of internees, the Detaining Power shall take their interests into account and, in particular, shall not do anything to increase the difficulties of repatriating them or returning them to their own homes.
Conditions

條件
第127條 
拘留人之移送,應始終以人道方法行之。原則上應由鐵路或其他交通工具運送,而其運送情形最少須與拘留國軍隊換防情形相同。如為例外的措施,此項移動必須步行,則除非拘留人在適宜之健康狀況下,不得執行,且絕不得使其過度疲勞。

拘留國在移送時,對拘留人應供給飲水與食物,其量、質與種類應足以維持其健康,並應供給必需之衣服,適當之住處,及必要之醫療照顧。拘留國應採取各種適當之預防措施以保證其在移送期間之安全,並在其啟程之前編造移送之拘留人全體名單。

傷、病,或體弱之拘留人及產婦,如旅程對彼等極為有害時,不得移送,除非彼等之安全,有此迫切移送的要求。

如戰區逼近拘留處所,在該處之拘留人不得移送,除非其移送能在適當的安全情形下實行,或拘留人如仍居住原地其所冒之危險將更甚於移送。

拘留國決定移送拘留人時,應顧及拘留人之利益,尤不得從事任何行動以增加其遣返或遣送回家之困難。
     
ART. 128.
In the event of transfer, internees shall be officially advised of their departure and of their new postal address. Such notification shall be given in time for them to pack their luggage and inform their next of kin.

They shall be allowed to take with them their personal effects, and the correspondence and parcels which have arrived for them. The weight of such baggage may be limited if the conditions of transfer so require, but in no case to less than twenty-five kilograms per internee.

Mail and parcels addressed to their former place of internment shall be forwarded to them without delay.

The commandant of the place of internment shall take, in agreement with the Internee Committee, any measures needed to ensure the transport of the internees’ community property and of the luggage the internees are unable to take with them in consequence of restrictions imposed by virtue of the second paragraph.
Method

方法
第128條 
在移送時,應向拘留人正式通知其行期及新通信地址。此項通知應及時發出,俾彼等得以收拾行李及通知其最近親屬。

彼等應準攜帶個人物品,及收到之函件包裹。如移送情形有此必要,得限制其攜帶行李之重量,但無論如何每人不得少於二十五公斤。

寄到彼等之先前拘留處所之函件包裹,應予轉遞,不得遲延。

拘留處所長官於徵得拘留人委員會同意後,應採取一切必要措施,保證運送拘留人之公共財物及其因本條第二款所加之限製而不能攜帶之行李。
     
CHAPTER XI  Deaths               第十一章 死亡
ART. 129.
 The wills of internees shall be received for safekeeping by the responsible authorities; and in the event of the death of an internee his will shall be transmitted without delay to a person whom he has previously designated.

Deaths of internees shall be certified in every case by a doctor, and a death certificate shall be made out, showing the causes of death and the conditions under which it occurred.

An official record of the death, duly registered, shall be drawn up in accordance with the procedure relating thereto in force in the territory where the place of internment is situated, and a duly certified copy of such record shall be transmitted without delay to the Protecting Power as well as to the Central Agency referred to in Article 140.
Wills. Death
certificates

遣囑。死亡證明。
 第129條 
拘留人之遺囑應由負責當局收存保管;拘留人死亡時,其遺囑應即交付其生前所指定之人,不得遲延。

拘留人之死亡均須由醫生證明,並須作成死亡證,載明死亡之原因及其發生情形。

適當登記之正式死亡記錄,應按照拘留處所所在地之現行手續製成,該記錄之正式證明抄本應迅速送交保護國及第140條所述之中央事務所。
     
ART. 130.
The detaining authorities shall ensure that internees who die while interned are honourably buried, if possible according to the rites of the religion to which they belonged and that their graves are respected, properly maintained, and marked in such a way that they can always be recognized.

Deceased internees shall be buried in individual graves unless unavoidable circumstances require the use of collective graves. Bodies may be cremated only for imperative reasons of hygiene, on account of the religion of the deceased or in accordance with his expressed wish to this effect. In case of cremation, the fact shall be stated and the reasons given in the death certificate of the deceased. The ashes shall be retained for safekeeping by the detaining authorities and shall be transferred as soon as possible to the next of kin on their request.

As soon as circumstances permit, and not later than the close of hostilities, the Detaining Power shall forward lists of graves of deceased internees to the Powers on whom the deceased internees depended, through the Information Bureaux provided for in Article 136. Such lists shall include all particulars necessary for the identification of the deceased internees, as well as the exact location of their graves.
Burial.
Cremation

土葬火葬
第130條 
拘留國當局應保證在拘留期間死亡之拘留人,獲得榮譽之安葬。可能時按照其所屬宗教之儀式埋葬之,並尊重其墳墓,妥為保護,並加以常能辨認之標誌。

死亡之拘留人應葬於個別之墳墓中;除非在無法避免之情況下必須採用集體墳墓。遺體僅得因迫切的衛生理由,死者之宗教關係或其本人表明之意願方得予以焚化。如舉行焚化,則此項事實與理由應載明於死者之死亡證。骨灰應由拘留國妥為保存,一經死者最近親屬請求,應即儘速交付。

一俟環境許可,並不遲於戰爭結束時,拘留國應經由第136條所規定之情報局,將死亡之拘留人墳墓清單送交其所屬之國家。該清單應載明為辨認死亡之拘留人所需要之一切詳情,及其墳墓之確實地點。
     
ART. 131.
 Every death or serious injury of an internee, caused or suspected to have been caused by a sentry, another internee or any other person, as well as any death the cause of which is unknown, shall be immediately followed by an official enquiry by the Detaining Power.

A communication on this subject shall be sent immediately to the Protecting Power. The evidence of any witnesses shall be taken, and a report including such evidence shall be prepared and forwarded to the said Protecting Power.

If the enquiry indicates the guilt of one or more persons, the Detaining Power shall take all necessary steps to ensure the prosecution of the person or persons responsible.
Internees
killed
or injured
in special
circumstances

在特殊情形下,拘留人被殺或重傷。
第131條
拘留人之死亡或重傷,係由於或疑為由於哨兵,其他拘留人,或任何其他人所致者,以及原因不明之死亡,拘留國應立即從事正式調查。

該事件應立即通知保護國。一切證人之證明應行收集,並應備有包括該項證明之報告,送交上述保護國。

如上述調查指明一人或多人犯罪,拘留國應採取一切必要之措施,對該負責人一人或多人進行訴追。
     
CHAPTER XII  Release, Repatriation and Accommodation in Neutral Countries           第十二章 釋放、遣返及收容於中立國 
ART. 132.
Each interned person shall be released by the Detaining Power as soon as the reasons which necessitated his internment no longer exist.

The Parties to the conflict shall,moreover, endeavour during the course of hostilities, to conclude agreements for the release, the repatriation, the return to places of residence or the accommodation in a neutral country of certain classes of internees, in particular children, pregnant women and mothers with infants and young children, wounded and sick, and internees who have been detained for a long time.
During
hostilities or
occupation

在戰事或佔領下
第132條 
一俟必須拘留之理由不復存在時,拘留國應即將拘留人釋放。

衝突之各方在戰事進行中並應設法締結協定,規定若干類之拘留人,尤其兒童、孕婦、有嬰孩與幼童之母親,傷者、病者及已經長期拘禁的拘留人之釋放、遣返、送歸原居住地或收容於中立國之辦法。
     
ART. 133.
Internment shall cease as soon as possible after the close of hostilities.

Internees in the territory of a Party to the conflict, against whom penal proceedings are pending for offences not exclusively subject to disciplinary penalties, may be detained until the close of such proceedings and, if circumstances require, until the completion of the penalty. The same shall apply to internees who have been previously sentenced to a punishment depriving them of liberty.

By agreement between the Detaining Power and the Powers concerned,committees may be set up after the close of hostilities, or of the occupation of territories, to search for dispersed internees.
After the
close of
hostilities

戰事結束之後
第133條 
戰事結束後,拘留應予儘速終止。

對於在衝突一方領土內之拘留人,其刑事程序正在進行中而其所犯行為並不只是紀律性處罰者,得予拘禁至該項刑事程序結束時止,並於情況需要時,直至刑罰終了時止。對先前已被判剝奪自由的處罰之拘留人,本規定亦應適用之。

戰事或占領結束後,得依拘留國與有關國家之協定,成立委員會,搜尋散失之拘留人。
     
ART. 134.
The High Contracting Parties shall endeavour, upon the close of hostilities or occupation, to ensure the return of all internees to their last place of residence, or to facilitate their repatriation.
Repatriation
and return to
last place of
residence

遣返及回到最後居住的地方
第134條
戰事或占領結束時,各締約國應努力設法使拘留人歸還最後居住地方,或便利彼等之遣返。
     
ART. 135.
 The Detaining Power shall bear the expense of returning released internees to the places where they were residing when interned, or, if it took them into custody while they were in transit or on the high seas, the cost of completing their journey or of their return to their point of departure.

Where a Detaining Power refuses permission to reside in its territory to a released internee who previously had his permanent domicile therein, such Detaining Power shall pay the cost of the said internee’s repatriation. If, however, the internee elects to return to his country on his own responsibility or in obedience to the Government of the Power to which he owes allegiance, the Detaining Power need not pay the expenses of his journey beyond the point of his departure from its territory. The Detaining Power need not pay the costs of repatriation of an internee who was interned at his own request.

If internees are transferred in accordance with Article 45, the transferring and receiving Powers shall agree on the portion of the above costs to be borne by each.

The foregoing shall not prejudice such special agreements as may be concluded between Parties to the conflict concerning the exchange and repatriation of their nationals in enemy hands.
Costs

費用
第135條 
拘留國應負擔將釋放之拘留人送回至其被拘留時居住之地方之費用。如拘留人係於過境時或在公海上始被拘管者,則該國應負擔其完成旅程或返歸啟程地點之費用。

拘留人以前原在拘留國領土內有永久住所,而在釋放之時該拘留國不許其繼續居住於其領土者,則該國應負擔該拘留人遣返之費用。但如拘留人願自行歸返其本國或因遵從其所隸屬國政府命令而返國者,則拘留國不必負擔該人離開該國領土出發地點後之旅費。拘留國不負擔自請拘留之拘留人之遣返費用。

如拘留人依第四十五條而被移送,移送國與接受國應商定上述各項費用之彼此分擔部分。

上述規定不礙及衝突各方間所訂立關於在敵方手中的本國人民之交換與遣返之特別協定。
     
SECTION V  INFORMATION BUREAUX AND CENTRAL AGENCY                     第五編 情報局與中央事務所                                      
ART. 136.
 Upon the outbreak of a conflict and in all cases of occupation, each of the Parties to the conflict shall establish an official Information Bureau responsible for receiving and transmitting information in respect of the protected persons who are in its power.

Each of the Parties to the conflict shall, within the shortest possible period, give its Bureau information of any measure taken by it concerning any protected persons who are kept in custody for more than two weeks, who are subjected to assigned residence or who are interned. It shall, furthermore, require its various departments concerned with such matters to provide the aforesaid Bureau promptly with information concerning all changes pertaining to these protected persons, as, for example, transfers, releases, repatriations, escapes, admittances to hospitals, births and deaths.
National
Bureaux

國家的情報局
第136條 
在衝突發生時及一切佔領之場合,衝突之每一方應設立一正式情報局,負責接收與傳遞有關在該國權利下之被保護人之情報。

衝突之每一方,在盡可能最短期內,應將其關於受看管逾兩星期,受指定居所限制,或被拘留之任何被保護人所採取任何措施之情報通知其情報局。又應令該國與此類事務有關之各部門,將關於此項被保護人之各項變動情形之情報,隨時迅速供給上述之情報局。例如移送、釋放、遣返、脫逃、送入醫院、出生、死亡。
     
ART. 137.
 Each national Bureau shall immediately forward information concerning protected persons by the most rapid means to the Powers of whom the aforesaid persons are nationals, or to Powers in whose territory they resided, through the intermediary of the Protecting Powers and likewise through the Central Agency provided for in Article 140. The Bureaux shall also reply to all enquiries which may be received regarding protected persons.

Information Bureaux shall transmit information concerning a protected person unless its transmission might be detrimental to the person concerned or to his or her relatives. Even in such a case, the information may not be withheld from the Central Agency which, upon being notified of the circumstances, will take the
necessary precautions indicated in Article 140.

All communications in writing made by any Bureau shall be authenticated by a signature or a seal.
Transmission
of
information

資訊的傳送
第137條 
各國情報局應立即以最迅速之方法將關於被保護人之情報,通過保護國及第140條所規定之中央事務所之媒介,通知被保護人之本國或其原居住國。該局並應答復其所接獲有關被保護人之一切查詢。

凡有關被保護人之情報,情報局均應轉遞,除非其轉遞對本人或其親屬有妨害。縱有此種情形亦不得將該項情報隱匿而不通知中央事務所。該所於接獲此項情形之通知後,當採取第140條所載之各種必要之預防辦法。

各情報局之一切書面通知應以簽名或蓋章為憑。
     
ART. 138.
 The information received by the national Bureau and transmitted by it shall be of such a character as to make it possible to identify the protected person exactly and to advise his next of kin quickly. The information in respect of each person shall include at least his surname, first names, place and date of birth, nationality, last residence and distinguishing characteristics, the first name of the father and the maiden name of the mother, the date, place and nature of the action taken with regard to the individual, the address at which correspondence may be sent to him and the name and address of the person to be informed.

Likewise, information regarding the state of health of internees who are seriously ill or seriously wounded shall be supplied regularly and if possible every week.
Particulars
required

要求的細節
第一三八條  國家情報局所接獲及傳遞之情報,應為具有能正確判明被保護人之身份及迅速報知其最近親屬之性質。關於各該人之情報至少應包括其姓、名、出生地點及日期、國籍、最後居所,及特徵、其父之名、其母之本名、對於其人所採行動之日期、地點及性質、其收信地址,及被通知人之姓名住址。
關於重病或重傷之拘留人之健康情況之情報亦應按期供給,可能時每週一次。
     
ART. 139.
 Each national Information Bureau shall, furthermore, be responsible for collecting all personal valuables left by protected persons mentioned in Article 136, in particular those who have been repatriated or released, or who have escaped or died; it shall forward the said valuables to those concerned, either direct, or, if necessary, through the Central Agency. Such articles shall be sent by the Bureau in sealed packets which shall be accompanied by statements giving clear and full identity particulars of the person to whom the articles belonged, and by a complete list of the contents of the parcel. Detailed records shall be maintained of the receipt and despatch of all such valuables.
Forwarding
of personal
valuables

個人貴重物品的轉送
第139條
各國情報局又應負責蒐集第136條所述之被保護人,尤其已被遣返或釋放者,或脫逃或死亡者,所遺留之一切個人貴重物品;各該局應直接,或於必要時經由中央事務所將上述貴重物品送交有關之人。此項物品應由情報局密封包裹寄送,並須附說明書清晰詳載關於此項物品所有人之身份事項,及包裹內容之清單。所有此種物品之收到及寄送之詳細記錄應予保存。
     
ART. 140.
 A Central Information Agency for protected persons, in particular for internees, shall be created in a neutral country. The International Committee of the Red Cross shall, if it deems necessary, propose to the Powers concerned the organization of such an Agency, which may be the same as that provided for in Article 123 of the Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners ofWar of August 12, 1949.

The function of the Agency shall be to collect all information of the type set forth in Article 136 which it may obtain through official or private channels and to transmit it as rapidly as possible to the countries of origin or of residence of the persons concerned, except in cases where such transmissions might be detrimental to the persons whom the said information concerns, or to their relatives. It shall receive from the Parties to the conflict all reasonable facilities for effecting such transmissions.

The High Contracting Parties, and in particular those whose nationals benefit by the services of the Central Agency, are requested to give the said Agency the financial aid it may require.

The foregoing provisions shall in no way be interpreted as restricting the humanitarian activities of the International Committee of the Red Cross and of the relief Societies described in Article 142.
Central
Agency

中央事務所
第140條 
在中立國境內,應為被保護人,尤其拘留人,設立中央事務所。紅十字國際委員會認為必要時,應向有關各國建議組織與1949年8月12日關於戰俘待遇之日內瓦公約第123條所規定者相同之事務所。
該事務所之任務應為蒐集第136條所列舉一類型的,得自官方或私人方面之一切情報,並應儘速將該項消息送達關係人之本國或居住國,惟此種轉遞對於該項情報涉及之人或其親屬有妨害時則為例外。衝突各方應給予該事務所以傳遞上項情報之一切相當便利。
各締約國,特別是其人民享受中央事務所服務之利益之國家,對該事務所應予以所需之經濟援助。
上述各規定絕不得解釋為限制紅十字國際委員會及第142條所述之救濟團體之人道之活動。
     
ART. 141.
 The national Information Bureaux and the Central Information Agency shall enjoy free postage for all mail, likewise the exemptions provided for in Article 110, and further, so far as possible, exemption from telegraphic charges or, at least, greatly reduced rates.
Exemption
from charges

費用之豁免
第141條
各國情報局及中央事務所應享受郵政免費,及第110條所規定之豁免,並應盡可能豁免電報費,或至少大減其費率。
     
PART IV  EXECUTION OF THE CONVENTION                             第四部 本公約之執行   
SECTION I  GENERAL PROVISIONS                                              第一編 總 則   
ART. 142.
Subject to the measures which the Detaining Powers may consider essential to ensure their security or to meet any other reasonable need, the representatives of religious organizations, relief societies, or any other organizations assisting the protected persons, shall receive from these Powers, for themselves or their duly accredited agents, all facilities for visiting the protected persons, for distributing relief supplies and material from any source, intended for educational, recreational or religious purposes, or for assisting them in organizing their leisure time within the places of internment. Such societies or organizations may be constituted in the territory of the Detaining Power, or in any other country, or they may have an international character.

The Detaining Power may limit the number of societies and organizations whose delegates are allowed to carry out their activities in its territory and under its supervision, on condition, however, that such limitation shall not hinder the supply of effective and adequate relief to all protected persons.

The special position of the International Committee of the Red Cross in this field shall be recognized and respected at all times.
Relief
societies
and other
organizations

救援團體及其他組織
第142條 
在拘留國認為保證其安全或適應其他合理需要所必要之措施之限制下,宗教組織、救濟團體,或其他任何協助被保護人之組織之代表,應得為其本人或其正式委派之代理人,自拘留國獲得一切必要之便利以訪問被保護人,分發為供教育、娛樂或宗教目的用之任何來源之救濟物資,或協助彼等在拘留處所內組織其空閒時間。此等團體或組織得在拘留國或任何其他國內組成,或具有國際性質。

拘留國得限制派有代表在其領土內及在其監督下從事活動之團體與組織之數目,但該項限制不得妨礙對於所有被保護人之有效及充分的救濟之供應。

紅十字國際委員會在該方面之特殊地位,無論何時均應予以承認及隨時尊重。
     
ART. 143.
 Representatives or delegates of the Protecting Powers shall have permission to go to all places where protected persons are, particularly to places of internment, detention and
work.

They shall have access to all premises occupied by protected persons and shall be able to interview the latter without witnesses, personally or through an interpreter.

Such visits may not be prohibited except for reasons of imperative military necessity, and then only as an exceptional and temporary measure. Their duration and frequency shall not be restricted.

Such representatives and delegates shall have full liberty to select the places they wish to visit.The Detaining or Occupying Power, the Protecting Power and when occasion arises the Power of origin of the persons to be visited, may agree that compatriots of the internees shall be permitted to participate in the visits.

The delegates of the International Committee of the Red Cross shall also enjoy the above prerogatives. The appointment of such delegates shall be submitted to the approval of the Power governing the territories where they will carry out their duties.
Supervision

監督
第143條 
保護國之代表應許其前往被保護人所在之一切地方,尤其拘留、拘禁及工作地方。

該代表等可進入被保護人居住之一切處所,並得親自或經由譯員,會見被保護人而無須他人在旁。

除因迫切的軍事需要之理由且僅作為一種例外及暫時的措施外,不得禁止此項訪問。訪問時間之久暫與次數亦不得加以限制。

此項代表等應有選擇其願訪問之地點之完全自由。拘留國或占領國、保護國及於必要時,被訪問人之本國,得同意拘留人之本國人參加此項訪問。

紅十字國際委員會之代表亦應享有上述各項特權。該代表等之指派須取得管理其執行任務所在地區之國家之同意。
     
ART. 144.
 The High Contracting Parties undertake, in time of peace as in time of war, to disseminate the text of the present Convention as widely as possible in their respective countries, and, in particular, to include the study thereof in their programmes of military and, if possible, civil instruction, so that the principles thereof may become known to the entire population.

Any civilian,military, police or other authorities, who in time of war assume responsibilities in respect of protected persons, must possess the text of the Convention and be specially instructed as to its provisions.
Dissemination
of the
Convention

公約的傳播
第144條
各締約國在和平時及戰爭時應在各該國盡量廣泛傳播本公約之約文,尤應在軍事,並如可能時在公民教育計劃中,包括本公約之學習,俾本公約之原則為全體居民所周知。

凡在戰時擔任有關被保護人之責任之任何民政,軍事,警察或其他當局必須備有本公約之約文,並須對其各項規定受有特別之教導。
     
ART. 145.
The High Contracting Parties shall communicate to one another through the Swiss Federal Council and, during hostilities, through the Protecting Powers, the official translations of the present Convention, as well as the laws and regulations which they may adopt to ensure the application thereof.
Translations.
Rules of
application

譯本。適用規則。
第145條
各締約國應通過瑞士聯邦委員會,在戰時則通過保護國,互相通知本公約之正式譯文,及其所採用以保證實施本公約之各項法律與規則。
     
ART. 146.
 The High Contracting Parties undertake to enact any legislation necessary to provide effective penal sanctions for persons committing, or ordering to be committed, any of the grave breaches of the present Convention defined in the following Article.

Each High Contracting Party shall be under the obligation to search for persons alleged to have committed, or to have ordered to be committed, such grave breaches, and shall bring such persons, regardless of their nationality, before its own courts. It may also, if it prefers, and in accordance with the provisions of its own legislation, hand such persons over for trial to another High Contracting Party concerned, provided such High Contracting Party has made out a prima facie case.

Each High Contracting Party shall take measures necessary for the suppression of all acts contrary to the provisions of the present Convention other than the grave breaches defined in the following Article.

In all circumstances, the accused persons shall benefit by safeguards of proper trial and defence, which shall not be less favourable than those provided by Article 105 and those following of the Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War of August 12, 1949.
Penal
sanctions
I.
General
observations

刑事制裁
I.普遍的關注
第146條 
各締約國擔任制定必要之立法,俾對於本身犯有或令人犯有下條所列之嚴重破壞本公約之行為之人,予以有效的刑事制裁。

各締約國有義務搜捕被控為曾犯或曾令人犯此種嚴重破壞本公約行為之人,並應將此種人,不分國籍,送交各該國法庭。該國亦得於自願時,並依其立法之規定,將此種人送交另一有關之締約國審判,但以該締約國能指出案情顯然者為限。

各締約國應採取必要措施,以製止下條所列嚴重破壞本公約行為以外之一切違反本公約規定之行為。

在一切情況下,被告人應享有適當的審判及辯護之保障。此種保障,不得次於1949年8月12日關於戰俘待遇之日內瓦公約第一百零五條及其以下各條所規定者。
     
ART. 147.
Grave breaches to which the preceding Article relates shall be those involving any of the following acts, if committed against persons or property protected by the present Convention: wilful killing, torture or inhuman treatment, including biological experiments, wilfully causing great suffering or serious injury to body or health, unlawful deportation or transfer or unlawful confinement of a protected person, compelling a protected person to serve in the forces of a hostile Power, or wilfully depriving a protected person of the rights of fair and regular trial prescribed
in the present Convention, taking of hostages and extensive destruction and appropriation of property, not justified by military necessity and carried out unlawfully and wantonly.
II.
Grave
breaches

II.嚴重的違規
第147條
上述所述之嚴重破壞公約行為,應係對於受本公約保護之人或財產所犯之任何下列行為:故意殺害,酷刑及不人道待遇,包括生物學實驗,故意使身體及健康遭受重大痛苦或嚴重傷害;將被保護人非法驅逐出境或移送,或非法禁閉,強迫被保護人在敵國軍隊中服務,或故意剝奪被保護人依本公約規定應享之公允及合法的審訊之權利,以人為質,以及無軍事上之必要而以非法與暴亂之方式對財產之大規模的破壞與徵收。
     
ART. 148.
No High Contracting Party shall be allowed to absolve itself or any other High Contracting Party of any liability incurred by itself or by another High Contracting Party in respect of breaches referred to in the preceding Article.
III.
Responsibilities
of the
Contracting
Parties

締約國的責任
 第148條
任何締約國不得自行推卸,或允許任何其他締約國推卸,其本身或其他締約國所負之關於上條所述之破壞公約行為之責任。
     
ART. 149.
At the request of a Party to the conflict, an enquiry shall be instituted, in a manner to be decided between the interested Parties, concerning any alleged violation of the Convention.

If agreement has not been reached concerning the procedure for the enquiry, the Parties should agree on the choice of an umpire who will decide upon the procedure to be followed. Once the violation has been established, the Parties to the conflict shall put an end to it and shall repress it with the least possible delay.
Enquiry
procedure

調查程序
 第149條
經衝突一方之請求,應依有關各方所決定之方式,進行關於任何被控違犯本公約行為之調查。

如關於調查程序不能獲致協議,則各方應同意選定一公斷人,由其決定應遵行之程序。違約行為一經確定,衝突各方應使之終止,並應迅速加以取締。
     
SECTION II  FINAL PROVISIONS                                         第二編 最後條款 
ART. 150.
 The present Convention is established in English and in French. Both texts are equally authentic.

The Swiss Federal Council shall arrange for official translations of the Convention to be made in the Russian and Spanish languages.
Languages

語言
第150條 
本公約係以英文法文訂立。兩種文字之約文具有同等效力。

瑞士聯邦委員會應準備本公約之俄文及西班牙文之正式譯文。
     
ART. 151.
 The present Convention,which bears the date of this day, is open to signature until February 12, 1950, in the name of the Powers represented at the Conference which opened at Geneva on April 21, 1949.
Signature

簽字
第151條
本公約以本日為訂立之日期,至1950年2月12日為止,凡參加1949年4月22日日內瓦會議各國,均可簽字。
     
ART. 152.
The present Convention shall be ratified as soon as possible and the ratifications shall be deposited at Berne.

A record shall be drawn up of the deposit of each instrument of ratification and certified copies of this record shall be transmitted by the Swiss Federal Council to all the Powers in whose name the Convention has been signed, or whose accession has been notified.
Ratification

批准
第152條 
本公約應儘速批准,批准書應交存於伯爾尼。

每一批准書交存時,應予登記,並由瑞士聯邦委員會將該項登記之證明的抄本分送業經簽字或通知加入本公約之各國。
     
ART. 153.
 The present Convention shall come into force six months after not less than two instruments of ratification have been deposited.

Thereafter, it shall come into force for each High Contracting Party six months after the deposit of the instrument of ratification.
Coming
into force

生效
第153條 
本公約在至少兩國批准書交存後六個月發生效力。

嗣後,本公約對於每一締約國自其批准書交存後六個月發生效力。
     
ART. 154.
In the relations between the Powers who are bound by the Hague Conventions respecting the Laws and Customs ofWar on Land, whether that of July 29, 1899, or that of October 18, 1907, and who are parties to the present Convention, this last Convention shall be supplementary to Sections II and III of the Regulations annexed to the above-mentioned Conventions of The Hague.
Relation with
the Hague
Conventions

與海牙公約的關係
第154條
在受1899年7月29日或1907年10月18日海牙陸戰法規與慣例公約之拘束並為本公約之締約國之各國關係上,本公約應為上述海牙公約所附規則第二編及第三編之補充。
     
ART. 155.
 From the date of its coming into force, it shall be open to any Power in whose name the present Convention has not been signed, to accede to this Convention.
Accession

加入
第155條
本公約自生效之日起,任何未簽字本公約之國家均得加入。
     
ART. 156.
 Accessions shall be notified in writing to the Swiss Federal Council, and shall take effect six months after the date on which they are received.

The Swiss Federal Council shall communicate the accessions to all the Powers in whose name the Convention has been signed, or whose accession has been notified.
Notification
of accessions

加入的通知書
第156條
本公約之加入應以書面通知瑞士聯邦委員會,自加入之通知收到之日起六個月後發生效力。

瑞士聯邦委員會應將此項加入通知所有業經簽署或加入本公約之國家。
     
ART. 157.
The situations provided for in Articles 2 and 3 shall give immediate effect to ratifications deposited and accessions notified by the Parties to the conflict before or after the beginning of hostilities or occupation. The Swiss Federal Council shall communicate by the quickest method any ratifications or accessions received from Parties to the conflict.
Immediate
effect

立即生效
第157條
第二條及第三條所載之情況,應使在戰事開始或占領之前或後,衝突各方所交存之批准書及加入通知立即生效。瑞士聯邦委員會應將其從衝突各方收到之任何批准書或加入之通知,以最迅速方法通告之。
     
ART. 158.
 Each of the High Contracting Parties shall be at liberty to denounce the present Convention.

The denunciation shall be notified in writing to the Swiss Federal Council, which shall transmit it to the Governments of all the High Contracting Parties.

The denunciation shall take effect one year after the notification thereof has been made to the Swiss Federal Council. However, a denunciation of which notification has been made at a time when the denouncing Power is involved in a conflict shall not take effect until peace has been concluded, and until after operations connected with the release, repatriation and re-establishment of the persons protected by the present Convention have been terminated.

The denunciation shall have effect only in respect of the denouncing Power. It shall in no way impair the obligations which the Parties to the conflict shall remain bound to fulfil by virtue of the principles of the law of nations, as they result from the usages established among civilized peoples, from the laws of humanity and the dictates of the public conscience.
Denunciation

退出
第158條
每一締約國得自由退出本公約。

退約須用書面通知瑞士聯邦委員會,並由該委員會轉告所有締約國政府。

退約須於通知瑞士聯邦委員會後一年發生效力。但締約國於作退約通知時已捲入衝突,則其退約須待至和議成立後,並在有關本公約所保護之人員之釋放、遣返及安置之工作完畢後,始能生效。

退約僅對該退約國有效,但並不減輕衝突各方依國際法原則仍應履行之義務,此等原則係產自文明人民間樹立之慣例,人道法則與公眾良心之要求。
     
ART. 159.
 The Swiss Federal Council shall register the present Convention with the Secretariat of the United Nations. The Swiss Federal Council shall also inform the Secretariat of the United Nations of all ratifications, accessions and denunciations received by it with respect to the present Convention.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, having deposited their respective full powers, have signed the present Convention.

DONE at Geneva this twelfth day of August 1949, in the English and French languages. The original shall be deposited in the Archives of the Swiss Confederation. The Swiss Federal Council shall transmit certified copies thereof to each of the signatory and acceding States.
Registration
with the
United
Nations

向聯合國登記
第159條 
瑞士聯邦委員會應將本公約在聯合國秘書處登記,並將其所接獲之所有關於本公約之批准、加入及退約通知聯合國秘書處。

為此,下列簽署人於交存全權證書後,簽署本公約,以昭信守。

1949年8月13日以英文法文訂於日內瓦。正本應交存於瑞士聯邦委員會之檔案中。瑞士聯邦委員會應將證明之抄本送交每一簽字及加入之國家。
     
ANNEX I                                           附件一關於醫院及安全地帶與處所協定草案
DRAFT AGREEMENT RELATING TO HOSPITAL AND SAFETY ZONES AND LOCALITIES
ARTICLE 1.
Hospital and safety zones shall be strictly reserved for the persons mentioned in Article 23 of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of August 12, 1949, and in Article 14 of the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time ofWar of August 12, 1949, and for the personnel entrusted with the organization and administration of these zones and localities and with the care of the persons therein assembled.
Nevertheless, persons whose permanent residence is within such zones shall have the right to stay there.
  第1條 
醫院及安全地帶應嚴格保留為1949年8月12日改善戰地武裝部隊傷者病者境遇之日內瓦公約第23條,及1949年8月12日關於戰時保護平民之日內瓦公約第14條所指之人,以及擔任組織與管理該地帶與處所及照顧集中該地的人們之人員之用。
但在該地帶有永久居所之人仍有權在該地居住。
     
ART. 2.
No persons residing, in whatever capacity, in a hospital and safety zone shall perform any work, either within or without the zone, directly connected with military operations or the production of war material.
  第2條
在醫院或安全地帶內居住之人,無論以任何資格,不得在該地帶內外從事任何與軍事行動或戰爭物資生產有關之工作。
     
ART. 3.
The Power establishing a hospital and safety zone shall take all necessary measures to prohibit access to all persons who have no right of residence or entry therein.
  第3條
設立醫院及安全地帶之國家應採取一切必要措施,對於無權居住或進入該醫院與安全地帶之人禁止入內。
     
ART. 4.
Hospital and safety zones shall fulfil the following conditions:
a) They shall comprise only a small part of the territory governed by the Power which has established them.
b) They shall be thinly populated in relation to the possibilities of accommodation.
c) They shall be far removed and free from all military objectives, or large industrial or administrative establishments.
d) They shall not be situated in areas which, according to every probability, may become important for the conduct of the war.
  第4條  醫院及安全地帶須具備下列條件:
a) 僅能佔設立醫院地帶之國家所統治的領土之一小部分。
b) 就容納可能言,應屬人口稀少之地區。
c) 應遠離軍事目標,或龐大工業或行政設置,並且本處亦無此項目標。
d) 不應設在可能變為在作戰上具有重要性之地區。
     
ART. 5.
Hospital and safety zones shall be subject to the following obligations:
a) The lines of communication and means of transport which they possess shall not be used for the transport of military personnel or material, even in transit.
b) They shall in no case be defended by military means.
  第5條 
醫院及安全地帶應遵守下列義務:
a) 其交通線與所有之運輸工具不得用以運輸軍事人員及物資,即使是過境者。
b) 絕不得以軍事方法防御之。
     
ART. 6.
Hospital and safety zones shall be marked by means of oblique red bands on a white ground, placed on the buildings and outer precincts.
Zones reserved exclusively for the wounded and sick may be marked by means
of the Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) emblem on a white ground.
They may be similarly marked at night by means of appropriate illumination.
  第6條 
醫院及安全地帶應在其建築物上及其外圍放置白底紅斜帶之標誌,以資識別。
專為傷者病者保留之地帶,得以白底畫有紅十字(紅新月、紅獅與日)之標誌標明之。
在夜間得以適當照明方法同樣標明之。
     
ART. 7.
The Powers shall communicate to all the High Contracting Parties in peacetime or on the outbreak of hostilities, a list of the hospital and safety zones in the territories governed by them. They shall also give notice of any new zones set up during hostilities.
As soon as the adverse Party has received the above-mentioned notification, the zone shall be regularly established.
If, however, the adverse Party considers that the conditions of the present agreement have not been fulfilled, it may refuse to recognize the zone by giving immediate notice thereof to the Party responsible for the said zone, or may make its recognition of such zone dependent upon the institution of the control provided for in Article 8.
  第7條 
各國在平時或戰事開始時,應將其統治之領土內之醫院及安全地帶列表通知各締約國。在戰事中所設立之新地帶亦應通知。
一俟敵方接獲上述通知,該地帶即為正式成立。
但如敵方認為本協定之條件未經履行,得立即通知該項地帶之負責國家拒絕承認,或以成立第八條所規定之管制辦法為其承認之條件。
     
ART. 8.
Any Power having recognized one or several hospital and safety zones instituted by the adverse Party shall be entitled to demand control by one or more Special Commissions, for the purpose of ascertaining if the zones fulfil the conditions and obligations stipulated in the present agreement.
For this purpose, members of the Special Commissions shall at all times have free access to the various zones and may even reside there permanently. They shall be given all facilities for their duties of inspection.
  第8條 
凡承認其敵國所設立之一個或數個醫院及安全地帶之國家,應有權要求由一個或幾個特別委員會管制之,俾資確定此等地帶是否履行本協定所規定之條件與義務。
為此目的,特別委員會委員應隨時得自由進入並長期居住於各該地帶。對於彼等之視察任務應給予各種便利。
     
ART. 9.
Should the Special Commissions note any facts which they consider contrary to the stipulations of the present agreement, they shall at once draw the attention of the Power governing the said zone to these facts, and shall fix a time limit of five days within which the matter should be rectified.They shall duly notify the Power who has recognized the zone.

If, when the time limit has expired, the Power governing the zone has not complied with the warning, the adverse Party may declare that it is no longer bound by the present agreement in respect of the said zone.
  第9條 
如特別委員會發現其所認為違反本協定之條款之事實,應立即促起管理該地帶之國家注意該項事實,並限定於五日內予以糾正,該委員會應及時通知承認該地帶之國家。
如限期已過,而管理該地帶之國家並未遵照警告辦理,敵方得宣布對於該地帶不復受本協定之拘束。
     
ART. 10.
Any Power setting up one or more hospital and safety zones, and the adverse Parties to whom their existence has been notified, shall nominate or have nominated by the Protecting Powers or by other neutral Powers, persons eligible to be members of the Special Commissions mentioned in Articles 8 and 9.
  第10條
凡設立一個或數個醫院及安全地帶之國家,及接獲其存在之通知之敵方,應指派,或由保護國或使其他中立國代派合格人員充任第8條及第9條所述之特別委員會委員。
     
ART. 11.
In no circumstances may hospital and safety zones be the object of attack. They shall be protected and respected at all times by the Parties to the conflict.
  第11條
醫院及安全地帶在任何情形下不得為攻擊之目標。衝突各方應隨時予以保護並尊重。
     
ART. 12.
In the case of occupation of a territory, the hospital and safety zones therein shall continue to be respected and utilized as such.
Their purpose may,however,be modified by the Occupying Power,on condition
that all measures are taken to ensure the safety of the persons accommodated.
  第12條 
在領土被佔領之場合,當地之醫院及安全地帶應繼續受尊重並仍作此用。
但佔領國在對於該地帶居住之人已採取各種措施保證其安全者,得改變其用途。
     
ART. 13.
The present agreement shall also apply to localities which the Powers may utilize for the same purposes as hospital and safety zones.
  第13條
本協定對用於醫院及安全地帶同樣目的之處所亦適用之。
     
ANNEX II
DRAFT REGULATIONS  CONCERNING COLLECTIVE RELIEF                附件二 關於集體救濟物品之規則草案 
ARTICLE 1.
The Internee Committees shall be allowed to distribute collective relief shipments for which they are responsible, to all internees who are dependent for administration on the said Committee’s place of internment, including those internees who are in hospitals, or in prisons or other penitentiary establishments.
  第1條
拘留人委員會應准其將所負責之集體救濟物資分配與受該會所在之拘禁處所管理之各拘留人,包括在醫院、監獄或其他反省機關中之拘留人。
     
ART. 2. — The distribution of collective relief shipments shall be effected in
accordance with the instructions of the donors and with a plan drawn up by the
Internee Committees. The issue of medical stores shall, however, be made for
preference in agreement with the senior medical officers, and the latter may, in
hospitals and infirmaries, waive the said instructions, if the needs of their patients
so demand.Within the limits thus defined, the distribution shall always be carried
out equitably.
  第2條
集體救濟物資之分配應照捐贈人之指示及拘留人委員會所擬之計劃辦理。但醫藥材料之發給宜與高級醫官商定進行。該醫官遇病人之需要有此要求時,得在醫院與療養所中放棄上項指示。在以上所規定之限度內分配應公平執行之。
     
ART. 3.— Members of Internee Committees shall be allowed to go to the railway
stations or other points of arrival of relief supplies near their places of internment
so as to enable them to verify the quantity as well as the quality of the goods
received and to make out detailed reports thereon for the donors.
  第3條
拘留人委員會委員應准其前往車站,或其他在其拘禁處所附近之救濟物品到達地點,俾能查核所收到物品之數量及品質,並對捐贈人作詳細報告。
     
ART. 4. — Internee Committees shall be given the facilities necessary for
verifying whether the distribution of collective relief in all sub-divisions and
annexes of their places of internment has been carried out in accordance with their
instructions.
  第4條
拘留人委員會應給予必需之便利,以便查核拘禁處所各分處及各附屬處所是否已依照其指示分配集體救濟物品。
     
ART. 5.— Internee Committees shall be allowed to complete, and to cause to be
completed by members of the Internee Committees in labour detachments or by
the senior medical officers of infirmaries and hospitals, forms or questionnaires
intended for the donors, relating to collective relief supplies (distribution,
requirements, quantities, etc.). Such forms and questionnaires, duly completed,
shall be forwarded to the donors without delay.
  第5條
凡送交捐贈人之有關集體救濟物資(如分配、需要、數量等)之表格或問題,均應準拘留人委員會填寫,並準該會促使其在勞動隊中之委員或療養所及醫院之高級醫官填寫。該項表格及問題正式填寫完畢後,應即送交捐贈人不得遲延。
     
ART. 6. — In order to secure the regular distribution of collective relief supplies
to the internees in their place of internment, and to meet any needs that may arise
through the arrival of fresh parties of internees, the Internee Committees shall be
allowed to create and maintain sufficient reserve stocks of collective relief. For this
purpose, they shall have suitable warehouses at their disposal; each warehouse shall
be provided with two locks, the Internee Committee holding the keys of one lock,
and the commandant of the place of internment the keys of the other.
  第6條
為保證在拘禁處所內對拘留人正常分發集體救濟物品,及適應因新到拘留人而發生之需要起見,應允許拘留人委員會準備並保持充分之集體救濟物品之存儲量。為此目的,該會應有適當之庫房以供使用;每一庫房均應有鎖兩把,拘留人委員會保管一鎖之鑰匙,另一鎖之鑰匙由拘禁處所長官保管之。
     
ART. 7. — The High Contracting Parties, and the Detaining Powers in particular,
shall, so far as is in any way possible and subject to the regulations governing the
food supply of the population, authorize purchases of goods to be made in their
territories for the distribution of collective relief to the internees. They shall
likewise facilitate the transfer of funds and other financial measures of a technical
or administrative nature taken for the purpose of making such purchases.
  第7條
各締約國,尤其拘留國,應盡可能並在管理居民食物供應之規則之限制下,准許在其境內採購物品,作為集體救濟物品分配於拘留人。各該國對於為此項採購所需之款項轉移,及其他技術性或行政性之金融措施,應同樣給予便利。
     
ART. 8. — The foregoing provisions shall not constitute an obstacle to the right
of internees to receive collective relief before their arrival in a place of internment
or in the course of their transfer, nor to the possibility of representatives of the
Protecting Power, or of the International Committee of the Red Cross or any other
humanitarian organization giving assistance to internees and responsible for
forwarding such supplies, ensuring the distribution thereof to the recipients by any
other means they may deem suitable.
  第8條
上述規定並不妨礙拘留人在到達拘禁處所前,或在移送途中受取集體救濟物品之權利。亦不妨礙保護國、紅十字國際委員會,或其他協助被保護人並負責運送此項物品之人道組織之代表,依其所認為適當之方法以保證將上項物品分配於受物人之可能。
   
ANNEX III
I. INTERNMENT CARD                                 附件三 拘禁郵片、信件、通訊郵片
拘禁郵片
一、正 面
二、背 面
(Size of internment card — 10 x 15 cm)  
   
ANNEX III
II. LETTER   信 件               
(Size of letter — 29 x 15 cm)  
   
ANNEX III
III. CORRESPONDENCE CARD
明信片
一、正 面
二、背 面
(Size of correspondence card — 10 x15 cm)  
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